CSDN博客

img BFP

四级考试简答题综论

发表于2004/10/6 20:31:00  1133人阅读

四级考试第四部分的第三种可能的题型是简单回答问题,简称为简答题。简答题选用的短文难度和长度与阅读理解文章相似,篇幅大约是250-300词。短文后附有5个问题或不完整的句子,要求考生在阅读完短文后用不超过10个词的简短英文(可以是句子,也可以是单词或短语)回答所提出的问题或补充不完整的句子。每题2分,共10分,考试时间为15分钟。
  自新题型公布至今,简答题共考过四次(1997年1月、1999年1月、1999年6月和2002年6月)。该题型要求考生在读懂文章的情况下,用自己的语言简短的回答出有关文章内容的问题,主要测试考生对英语的确切理解能力和用英语进行表达的能力,在考查阅读理解的基础上考查了考生的英语表达能力和概括能力。 同翻译题一样,简答题的基础依然是阅读理解,但对阅读理解的要求更高。在一定的意义上,简单题与阅读理解部分更为接近,考查的点既有细节题,也有推断题,甚至还有要考生进行总结归纳的题。但由于简答部分只有问题,而且要求考生用简练的语言进行回答(超过10个字是要扣分的),同时还要注意拼写、语法的正确,这就使得简答题要难得多。从往年的考试情况看来,这部分的得分是比较低的。如果在阅读理解中能拿到30分的话,在这个部分恐怕只能拿到5分左右。

  简答题较难的另一个原因是在这个部分中几乎没有猜题的技巧可言,所以平时复习时不要报有幻想,而是要从根本上提高自己的阅读能力。

  由于简答题的考查点与阅读理解有很大的相似性,平时提高做简答题能力的方法是:在做阅读理解题时,先不看选项,试一试用自己的话回答。

二、简答题的评分原则及标准
  一、简答题要求学生在读懂文章的基础上,用正确简洁的语言回答问题。在评分时同时考虑内容和语言。每题满分为2分,最低分为0分。

二、给分标准

2分 — 答出全部内容,语言正确;

1分 — 答出部分内容,语言正确;

0分 — 没有答对问题。

三、扣分标准

1. 语言错误扣0.5分,每题语言错误扣分不超过0.5分(标点符号和大小写错误忽略不计);

2. 涉及无关内容者扣0.5分;若答案中有互相矛盾的内容,则内容互相矛盾的部分皆不得分;

3. 整句原封不动照搬,扣0.5分;

4. 考生所给答案超过10个单词扣0.5分。

如答案涵盖两个方面,而考生只答对其中一个方面时,答错的一方面则在扣除1分后不再以多余信息另外扣分,但其中如有语言错误则再扣0.5分,

三、你来试一试
下面是2002年6月份的四级考试的简答题部分,请你先做一下,然后再对照标准的评分标准看看自己能得多少分。 Part IV Short Answer Questions (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words).

As researchers learn more about how children’s intelligence develops, they are increasingly surprised by the power of parents. The power of the school has been replaced by the home. To begin with, all the factors which are part of intelligence – the child’s understanding of language, learning patterns, curiosity – are established well before the child enters school at the age of six. Study after study has shown that even after school begins, children’s achievements have been far more influenced by parents than by teachers. This is particularly true about learning that is language-related. The school rather than the home is given credit for variations in achievement in subjects such as science.

In view of their power, it’s sad to see so many parents not making the most of their child’s intelligence. Until recently parents had been warned by educators who asked them not to educate their children. Many teachers now realize that children cannot be educated only at school and parents are being asked to contribute both before and after the child enters school.

Parents have been particularly afraid to teach reading at home. Of course, children shouldn’t be pushed to read by their parents, but educators have discovered that reading is best taught individually – and the easiest place to do this is at home. Many four- and five-year-olds who have been shown a few letters and taught their sounds will compose single words of their own with them even before they have been taught to read.

Questions:

S1. What have researchers found out about the influence of parents and the school on children’s intelligence?

S2. What do researchers conclude about children’s learning patterns?

S3. In which area may school play a more important role?

S4. Why did many parents fail to make the most of their children’s intelligence?

S5. The author suggests in the last paragraph that parents should be encouraged to ________________________________.


下面是当年的评分标准,括号中是本文作者的说明。

S1: What have researchers found out about the influence of parents and the school on children’s intelligence?

Parents have greater influence than the school.

Parents’ influence is greater than the school’s.

2分

1. The influence of parents is greater than that of school. (说明:下划线的词是关键,少了则扣分。)

2. The power of parents has influenced children more.

3. Parents influence children more than teachers.

4. The power of the school is replaced by parents. (与照搬没有太大的区别,但换了一下时态和“home”。与1.5分档的第2题相比,是不是赚了?)

5. The influence of parents is more important ^. (^表示后面可加上相应的内容,如此题中可加上“than teachers”)

6. The parents are more important than the school.

1.5分

1. ^Far more influenced by parents than by teachers. (语法错误,无主语,无系动词)

2. The power of the school has been replaced by home. (原句照搬)

3. Researchers think that the influence of parents better than school’s. (在better前少了动词“is”;在school’s前还应有“that of”)

4. Parents put more influence than the school on children’s intelligence.

5. Parents influenced ^more than school. (influence少了宾语)

6. Children’s intelligence is ^ influenced by parents than by teachers.

0.5分

They are increasingly surprised by the power of parents. (算是答对了部分内容,给1分;原句照搬,扣0.5)

0分

1. The children’s intelligence develops have been replaced by the home. (主语不对,谓语也用错了。)

2. The school has been replaced by their parents. (关键是主语错了,整个是没理解)

3. Parents are far more influenced than the school.

4. They are increasingly surprised by the power of two place.

5. Researchers have found out the power of them.

6. It is both important for children’s intelligence.

7. The power of the school doesn’t replace by the parents.

8. The power of the home has replaced by the school.

9. They felt surprised by the power of parents than schools.


S2. What do researchers conclude about children’s learning patterns?

They are established well before the age of 6.

2分

1. They are established well before the child enters / they enter school.

2. Children’s learning patterns are established before they enter school.

3. Children’s learning patterns are developed at the early age.

1.5分

1. They are established before entering school at the age of six.

2. Children have learned pattern before 6 years old.

3. establish well before they enter school at six.

4. It was established well before entering school.

5. They’re part of intelligence which are established before entering school.

6. They are formed at 6 before school and at home.

7. They should be taught before school and at home.

8. Parents are important to forming young children’s learning patterns.

9. it is established before school

1分

0.5分

0分

1. Both the teacher and parents are responsible for them.

2. part of learning patterns is established before children enter school.(当时很多少都用了类似的回答,其实是没看懂原句)

3. Children’s learning from parents before six is important.

4. They should be educated before school and at home.

5. They are more influenced by parents than be teachers before schooling.

6. All the factors are established well before they enter school.

7. Children’s intelligence is established well before they enter school.(答非所问)

8. they are part of children’s intelligence.

9. They are far more influenced by parents before entering school.

10. They are concerned with intelligence.

11. children learn from their parents.


S3. In which area may school play a more important role?

Science. (这是最简练的回答)

Science subjects. (这是最正确的回答)

2分

1. In subjects/courses such as science/teaching science.

2. (The) School plays a more important role in science courses. (啰嗦些,但也算答到点子上了)。

3. Education in science.

4. It’s given credit for variations in achievement in science subjects. (基本照抄了原句,但根据问题把主语换了一下。这是很保险的聪明做法!)

5. It is thought to be good at science subjects.

6. In science.

1.5分

1. In achievement in subjects such as science. (in achievement多余)

2. Children learn language at home, science at school (未切中要害)

3. To teach the subjects such as science. (与提问不相配)

4. in other fields except language such as science (含多余信息)

5. variations in achievement in subjects such as science

6. school may play ^important role in science (在^处少了“a more”,太亏了)

7. teaching subjects which is not language related such as science

8. It is given credit in subjects such as science.

1分

1. promote children’s learning in science and other skills

2. In achievement and in subjects as science

0.5分(无)

0分

1. teaching courses which couldn’t be taught be parents

2. subjects such as science and reading (矛盾)

3. There is in achievement in subjects such as science. (这个句型错误表明根本就没看懂文章,也不理解问题)

4. The science and technology knowledge.

5. In giving credit for variation in achievement in subjects like science.

6. In achievement in subjects.

7. giving students credits for variations in science

8. Credit for variations in achievement in subjects such as science

9. Offering variations in achievement in subjects such as science

S4. Why did many parents fail to make the most of their children’s intelligence?

They were told by educators not to educate their children.

2分(要点出they were warned by educators和they didn’t educate their children 两信息)

1. (Because) Some/The educators warned/told/asked parents/them not to educate their/little children. (可以用warned, asked 等动词)

2. (Because) Parents/They were warned (by educators) not to educate their children.

3. They had been asked/warned not to educate/teach their children. (要求用过去时或过去完成时)

1.5分

Parents are warned by the educators not to educate them. (时态错误;代词指代不清)

1分(只答出其中的一部分信息)

1. Many parents did not educate/hadn’t educated their children at home/out of school.

2. Because they didn’t realize they should educate their children also.

3. The educators warned them not to do so.

4. They were warned by educators who asked them not so.

5. Because many parents had been warned by educators.

0.5分

1. Because they/these parents don’t educate their children.

2. The children haven’t been taught at home by their parents.

3. They neglect teaching their children.

4. Because they didn’t realize the importance to teach in home.

5. Because they ^ warned by educators how and what to do.

6. Their parents had been warned by educators who asked them.(矛盾的多余信息)

7. Because recently parents had been warned by educators.

8. Many parents ^ warned by educators not educating kids before school.

0分

1. Parents are/have been (particularly) afraid to teach children at home/by themselves.

2. Because they didn’t discover that reading is best taught individually.

3. not (to) educate their children

4. Many parents (were) not making the most of their child’s children’s intelligence.

5. The children cannot be educated at home by their parents.

6. Because many parents didn’t make their efforts to children’s intelligence.

7. They depend on school.

8. They can be educated only at school.

9. Because they hadn’t been warned to do so.

10. Because they/these parents educate their child not very well.

11. Because they didn’t teach well before and after entering school.

S5. The author suggests in the last paragraph that parents should be encouraged to ________________________________.

teach reading at home

2分

1. teach reading

2. teach the children to read

3. They should be encouraged to teach their children to read

4. teach their children how to read

1.5分

1. teach children to sound and read at home(多余)

2. teach child reading at home (应该用复数)

3. teach their children to study such as reading (多余)

4. teach their children to read and write

5. teach their children reading when they are very young

6. teach reading to their children as much as possible

7. teach their children sounds of single words and teach reading

8. Parents should teaching their children reading more

9. teach reading individually and teach their children to read

10. teach their children reading at home from letters to words

11. teach their children how to read but not ^ push them

12. teach the children to read words

1分

1. teach read show a few letters and teach their sounds

2. teach children read in an efficient way

3. teach reading with their children at home often

4. teach child reading at home before and after they enter school

5. teach their children to read before children go to school

0分

1. teach their children individually

2. realize that the easiest place to read is at home

3. read and show a few letters

4. do some reading for their children at home

5. read for children and teach them a few letters

6. compose single words of their own

7. taught child sounds with single words before taught to read

8. they should teach their children at home by reading

9. teach children language and single words at home

10. Reading is best taught to the children

11. The author suggests that parents encourage children to read

12. let their children read by themselves at home

14. give the children early reading

15. make their child reading at home

从上面的评分标准中我们可以看出,简答题的关键是要读懂原文,回答问题中要切中要点,回答的形式还要同根据问题的形式相一致。在这里,我们尤其提醒大家,如果你没有太大的把握,不妨照抄原文, 这样至少能得一分(超过10个词)。这是评分标准的一个漏洞,在无奈的时候可以利用。
一.简答题的解题步骤
特别提示:做简答题切不要画蛇添足。
第一步 通篇略读。
所谓通篇略读是指迅速扫视全文,舍弃无关细节,全力捕捉文章大意的阅读方法。
在略读时以下面几点为目标:

1) 大致了解文章涉及内容,文章是关于哪一方面,什么内容。

2) 发现文章的中心思想和作者的基本观点态度。

3) 对文章结构脉络有基本印象,知道大致观点、例证及具体分析的位置。

略读的目标决定了略读只需将注意力放在文章的主题句、关键词这些部分,其余部分如:具体的论述、细节、数字等,则可以跳过不读。因此,略读速度是一般阅读速度的两倍,也就是说,象简答题部分所选短文用2分半钟左右的时间就应通篇略读一遍。

第二步 照题查阅。
所谓照题查阅是指根据问题去寻找答案。

通常照题查阅是在通篇略读之后,如果时间有限也可直接进行这一步。照题查阅时应注意以下几点:

1. 充分理解问题,一定准确理解所问的内容,确定需要在文章中查找的对象。

2. 根据通篇略读的印象,回到文章相应部分寻找答案。

3. 在文章相关部分,应仔细阅读前后的句子。

4. 对照问题,确定答案的基本内容。

第三步 简练作答。
在基本确定了每道题的回答内容之后,就要用简练、准确的英语表达出来。在归纳、组织答案时要注意以下几点: 1.答案要与提问的方式保持一致。

如用who提问就要以某种/个人来回答,而不能以陈述型句子来回答。否则,答非所问,会扣分或不得分。

2. 要避免语言错误。

组织答案时,尽量避免语言错误,如:时态、主谓一致、句子结构和拼写等。尽量使用自己有把握的词、短语和句型。

3. 要善于利用原文的关键词句。

在寻找和组织答案时,可以引用表达答案关键内容的原文,但切忌整句照搬,要适当改动,否则会被扣分。

4. 注意字数。

简答题要求用10个以内的词准确表述答案,词数超出,会被扣分。 5. 注意卷面。

答案书写要规范、认真,首字母要大写。标点符号的使用要规范。

第四步 仔细核对。
答案写完之后,时间允许的情况下,应仔细检查核对,避免失误。此时应检查这几方面:

1.再次审题,确认回答符合问题要求,避免答非所问。

2.清除语法、语言错误。语言错误有拼写错误、标点不当、大小写等。常见的语法错误有时态与原文不符、主谓不一致、词汇用法不当等。

3.保证字数没有超出要求。


二、简答题实战 (单击此处打开答案和注解)
在对简答题的作了充分的了解之后,现在让我们来做几套试题,以熟悉这种题的解题方法和答题的要点。

同做阅读理解题一样,我们的第一步还是要通读一下全文,搞清楚文章的体裁、话题、主题和基本结构。然后是针对问题寻找线索。在此基础之上,再来寻找或归纳出答案。

1999年1月考题
Would–be language teachers everywhere have one thing in common: they all want some recognition of their professional status and skills, and a job. The former requirement is obviously important on a personal level, but it is vital if you are to have any chance of finding work.

Ten years ago, the situation was very different. In virtually every developing country, and in many developed countries as well, being a native English speaker was enough to get you employed as an English teacher.

Now employers will only look at teachers who have the knowledge, the skills and attitudes to teach English effectively. The result of this has been to raise non-native English teachers to the same status as their native counter-parts(相对应的人)--- something they have always deserved but seldom enjoyed. Non-natives are happy--- linguistic discrimination(语言上的歧视)is a thing of the past.

An ongoing research project, funded by the University of Cambridge, asked a sample of teachers, educators and employers in more than 40 countries whether they regarded the native /non-native speakers distinction as being at all important. “No” was the answer. As long as candidates can teach and had the required level of English, it didn’t matter who they were and where they came from. Thus, a new form of discrimination--- this time justified because it singled out the unqualified--- liberated the linguistically oppressed(受压迫的). But the Cambridge did more than just that: it confirmed that the needs of native and non-native teachers were extremely similar.

1. The selection of English teachers used to be mainly based on ________.

2.What did non-native English teachers deserve but seldom enjoy?

3. What kind of people can now find a job as an English teacher?

4. What is the result of the “new form of discrimination”(Line 5, Para.4)?

5. The phrase “the linguistically oppressed”(Line 6, Para. 4) refers to those who were_________.

1999年6月
Directions: In this part, there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. (15 minutes)

For many women choosing whether to work or not to work outside their home is a luxury: they must work to survive. Others face a hard decision.

Perhaps the easiest choice has to do with economics. One husband said, "Marge and I decided after careful consideration that for her to go back to work at this moment was an extravagance(奢侈) we couldn"t afford." With two preschool children, it soon became clear in their figuring that with babysitters(临时照看小孩 的),transportation, and increased taxes, rather than having more money, they might actually end up with less.

Economic factors are usually the first to be considered, but they are not the most important. The most important aspects of the decision have to do with the emotional needs of each member of the family. It is in this area that husbands and wives find themselves having to face many confusing and conflicting feelings.

There are many women who find that homemaking is boring or who feel imprisoned(被囚人) if they have to stay home with a young child or several children. On the other hand, there are women who think that homemaking gives them the deepest satisfaction.

From my own experience, I would like to suggest that sometimes the decision to go back to work is made in too much haste. There are few decisions that I now regret more. I wasn"t mature enough to see how much I could have gained at home. I regret my impatience to get on with my career. I wish I had allowed myself the luxury of watching the world through my little girl"s eves.

Questions: (注意:答题尽量简短,超过10个词要扣分。每条横线限写一个英语单词,标点符号不占格。)

S1. Which word in the first two paragraphs best explains why many women have to work?

S2. Why did Marge and her husband think it an extravagance for Marge to go back to work?

S3. What are the two major considerations in deciding whether women should go out to work?

S4. Some women would rather do housework and take care of their children than pursue a career because they feel______ .

S5. If given a second chance, the writer would probably choose to ______ .

1997年1月
In Britain, the old Road Traffic Act restricted speeds to 2 m. p. h. (miles per hour) in towns and 4 m. p. h. in the country. Later parliament increased the speed limit to 14 m. p. h. But by 1903 the development of the car industry had made it necessary to raise the limit to 20 m. p. h. By 1930, however, the law was so widely ignored that speeding restrictions were done away with altogether. For five years motorists were free to drive at whatever speeds they liked. Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30 m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas, along with the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings.

Speeding is now the most common motoring offence in Britain. Offences for speeding fall into three classes: exceeding the limit on restricted road, exceeding on any road the limit for the vehicle you are driving, and exceeding the 70 m. p. h. limit on any road. A restricted mad is one where the street lamps are 200 yards apart, or more.

The main controversy (争论) surrounding speeding laws is the extent of their safety value. The Ministry of Transport maintains that speed limits reduce accidents. It claims that when the 30 m. p. h. limit was introduced in 1935 there was a fall of 15 percent in fatal accidents. Likewise, when the 40 m. p. h. speed limit was imposed on a number of roads in London in the late fifties, there was a 28 percent reduction in serious accidents. There were also fewer casualties (伤亡)in the year after the 70 m. p. h. motorway limit was imposed in 1966.

In America, however, it is thought that the reduced accident figures are due rather to the increase in traffic density. This is why it has even been suggested that the present speed limits should be done away with completely, or that a guide should be given to inexperienced drivers and the speed limits made advisory, as is done in parts of the USA.

Questions:

1. During which period could British motorists drive without speed limits?

2. What measures were adopted in 1935 in addition to the speeding restrictions?

3. Speeding is a motoring offense a driver commits when he __________.

4. What is the opinion of British authorities concerning speeding laws?

5. What reason do Americans give for the reduction in traffic accidents?
1999年1月考题
文章导读
一个英语教师的标准是什么?是不是只要是a native English speaker就可以了呢?A native English speaker是否就比a non-native English speaker强呢?该篇短文对比了对英语教师过去和现在的职业要求和资格评价的情况,介绍了现在对本族语英语教师和非本族语英语教师一视同仁的变化。
第一题 The selection of English teachers used to be mainly based on ________.
题解:本题的重要线索是题干中的“used to”。文章的第二段提到“十年前,……只要是a native English speaker,你就足以成为一名英语教师了”。换句话说,就是过去选择英语教师的标准就是看你是不是a native English speaker。所以本题的正确答案可以是:…whether they were English speakers。

要点:(1)注意答案是作“on”宾语,后面又有“是否……”,答案应该用由whether引导的名词性从句;

(2)题干中的“used to”告诉我们答案中也要用过去时态;如果信手写成whether they are English speakers是要扣0.5分的;

(3)题干中的“English teachers”是一个复数,答案中也要用复数。如果信手写成whether he was English speakers是要扣0.5分的;

请参考其它的评分标准:

l 可得2.0分的回答:

1) their nationality

2) whether they were native speakers or not

3) the language the teachers had as mother tongue

4) the job applicants’ nationality

5) where they came from and their mother tongue

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) whether is a native speaker or not

从句中缺主语,语法错误扣0.5分。

2) their citizenship, whether the job applicants were English speakers or not.

超词,共11个词,扣0.5分。 l 可得1分的回答

1) being a native speaker was enough to get you employed

照抄原文,扣0.5分。与所补充句子语法不搭配,扣0.5分。

2) they were native speakers or not and whether professional status

“whether…or not”句式表达错误,扣0.5分。部分内容与问题无关,扣0.5分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

1) nation. A English man is enough to be a English teacher.

回答不全面,仅包含部分正确内容,扣0.5分。语法错误(应为,时态错误应为过去时)扣0.5分。

2) Speaking. You should being a native speaker.

回答不全面,包含部分正确内容,得1 分。语言错误,扣0.5分。

l 可得0分的回答:

1) their professional status and skills

2) a personal level

3) a native English speaker

4) the knowledge, the skills and the attitudes.

没有回答出正确内容,不得分。

第二题 What did non-native English teachers deserve but seldom enjoy?
题解:本题有较明确的线索,在第三段中有“something they have always deserved but seldom enjoyed”,本题的答案显然是这个“something”,那么它究竟指的是什么呢?答案很简单,在something的前面有一个破折号,去找一找前面的名词短语就是了,所以答案是:the same status as their native counterparts。

要点:问题是以what进行的提问而且问的是事物,所以要以名词的形式作答。由于本题较简单,扣分也比较狠。

l 可得2.0分的回答:.

1) The status that/which the native counterparts have.

2) The same status as the native English teachers

3) Having the same status as those native speakers.

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) Same status as their native counterparts. 语法错误,应为The same status,扣0.5分。

2) There shouldn’t be linguistic discrimination. 问题以what提问,应回答具体事物,但句子内容基本切合题义,因此扣0.5分。

3) Raising them to the same status as the native speakers. 语态错误,应为被动语态,扣0.5分。

4) They were at the same status as the native English teachers. 时态错误,应为现在时,扣0.5分。

l 可得1分的回答:

1. Recognition of professional status and skills and a job. 回答包含部分答案,但不全面也不清楚,扣1分。

2. The result that they have the same status as their native counterparts. 问题问的是没有享受到的事物,回答中用the result,不太合题意,扣0.5分。超词,扣0.5分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

1) Raising of their status. 仅提到地位的提升,但提升到什么程度这一关键内容没有涉及,因此扣1.5分。

2) They can teach English like native English teachers.

仅提到象本族语教师一样讲课,但在什么方面一样没有涉及,忽略了关键部分,扣1.5分。

l 可得0分的回答:

1) Linguistic discrimination.

2) Like their native counterparts.

3) The chances to be an English teacher.

4) The native English teacher

完全答非所问,不得分。

第三题 What kind of people can now find a job as an English teacher?
题解: 本题有两处重要线索,只要找到一处,即能找到正确答案。这两处线索分别是:第三段的第一句话说,现在雇主们只去注意那些……的人,省略号的部分即是答题的关键。另一处线索是第四段的第二句话,“只要他们能……”,能答出此处,也是正确的。

要点: (1)问题是“什么样的人”,因此本题的作答应该是名词短语,最好用定语从句。

(2)题干中的“can”表明这是现在时,这是一个重要的线索。

其它的评分标准:

标准答案:

Those who are qualified.

Those who can teach English effectively.

l 可得2分的回答:

1) Those who have good skills and attitudes to teach effectively.

2) Both qualified native English speakers and non-native speakers.

3) Whoever has the knowledge, the skills and the right attitudes.

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) Having the knowledge, the skill and teaching English effectively.

问题中问的是哪种人能找到教师工作,回答与提问不对应,仅提到应具备的素质,因此扣分。

2) Those who have knowledge and skills, can teach English effectively. 语言错误,应为,扣分。

3) Who can teach and have the required level of English. 语言错误,应添加,才能具有名词性,扣分。

l 可得1分的回答:

1) People who has knowledge, the skills and attitudes to teach English effectively. 语言错误,应为have,扣分。超词,扣分。

2) The knowledgeable, skillful people who have the required English level.

错误使用knowledgeable,该词意思是“渊博的”,与答案内容无关,扣0.5分。若具体回答成为一个英语教师的条件,应为the knowledge, the skills, and the right attitudes,回答中仅提到the skill一项,扣0.5分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

1) The people who had the required level of English. 答案关键内容缺失较多,扣1分。时态错误,扣0.5分。

2) A people who have the attitudes to teacher English effectively. 句中语言错误较多,扣0.5分。句子语意与原文意义相差较远,扣1分。

l 可得0分的回答:

1) He’s the knowledge, the skills, attitudes to teach English effectively.

2) People can teach English effectively.

!!特别提示:

这两个回答看上去与问题毫不相关。但稍加改动即为正确答案:

1) He who has the knowledge … (1.5分)

2) People who can teach… (2分)

也许写下这两个回答的考生已经理解了文章,但由于他们严重错误的表达,他们的回答变得答非所问,不能得分。这一点请大家务必注意。

第四题What is the result of the “new form of discrimination”(Line 5, Para.4)?
题解: 这是类似于阅读理解中词义判断的题,但与做阅读理解不同的是,在阅读理解中存在两种词汇题,其一是考查学生利用上下文猜单词的能力,其二是考查根据上下文对(主要是熟悉的)词语的理解能力。而在简答题中,考查的对象主要是第二点。

就本题而言,原文中已经在括号中给出了不认识的单词的汉语意思,因此,这是不猜测词义的题,而是要求根据上下文判断这外短语在本文中的所指,是一道理解的题。

在找到第四段中的这个短语后,可以发现在“a new form of discrimination”的破折号之后的部分内容就是答案。稍微组织一下,可以全面的回答为 it singled out the unqualified and liberated the linguistically oppressed。

如果确实理解了这句话,可以看出它的意思是“它剔除了不合格的(教师),解放了以前在语言上受压迫的(教师)”。

要点: 问题是“……的结果”,应该用完整的句子作答。

其它的评分标准:

l 标准答案:

The linguistically oppressed are liberated.

Unqualified English teachers are singled out.

l 可得2分的回答:

1) The result is that the linguistically oppressed were liberated.

2) Singling out the unqualified, liberating the linguistically oppressed.

3) The unqualified teachers are singled out while the qualified liberated.

4) It liberated the non-native English teachers linguistically oppressed.

5) It selected the qualified teachers and singled out the unqualified.

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) The inqualified English teachers are singled out. 语言错误,扣0.5分。

2) It single out the unqualified liberated ^ linguistically oppressed. 多处语言错误,扣0..5分。

3) To liberate the linguistically oppressed 不定式表将来,问题问的是已产生的后果,时间不符,扣0.5分。

l 可得1分的回答:

1) Qualification may be more important. 句子意义与短文内容不贴切,扣1分。

2) The non-native teachers replace those unqualified native teachers.

回答不准确,什么样的非本族语教师没有说清楚,这恰恰是答案的重要部分,扣1分。

3) The unqualified native English teachers will be fired.

句子时态错误,扣0.5分。句子含义不准确,扣0.5分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

The non-natives could also become an English teacher.

与短文意义相差太远,扣1.5分。

l 得0分的回答:

1) Teachers are justified if they were qualified.

2) It will improve the teachers’ all kinds of level.

3) The non-native speaks are liberate.

完全答非所问,不得分。

第五题 The phrase “the linguistically oppressed”(Line 6, Para. 4) refers to those who were_________.
题解: 本题的短文中的位置与第四题在同一句话中,但答题的线索却不相同。它的线索其实是基于对全文的理解。本文主要是就英语教师的问题,将过去和现在人们对native English speakers和non-native English speakers的英语教师的态度和评判的标准加以对比。在第二段(问题的第一题)指出在过去,只要是native English speaker,你就能是英语教师了,这暗示人们对native English speaker的盲目倾向;第三段指出了人们现在评判英语教师的标准(第二题),最后一句说,“Non-natives are happy--- linguistic discrimination(语言上的歧视)is a thing of the past”,言外之意是过去Non-natives 在过去是受歧视的。那么“受歧视的”与“受压迫的”明显指的是同一种人,所以本题的答案很简单,就是non-native English speakers 的英语教师,可以用英语表达为:non-native teachers of English。

但本题中有一个陷阱,就是前面的it singled out the unqualified。在过去受压迫的non-native teachers of English中肯定也有合格的和不合格的,所以显然不是所有的non-native teachers of English都被解放了,那些不合格的还是被剔除了。所以如果只答出non-native teachers of English的话,只是理解对了一半,最终本题的正确答案应该是在non-native teachers of English前加上qualified一词。

要点: (1)问题中要填的是定语从句的表语部分,表示“什么样的人”,因此本题的作答应该是名词短语而不要用句子。

(2)题干中的“who were”表明这是过去时,这是一个重要的线索。

l 标准答案:

qualified non –native teachers of English.

l 可得2分的回答:

1) qualified in teaching English but were non-native speakers.

2) good English teachers but were non-natives.

3) non-native English teachers who could teach English effectively.

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) non-native speakers but have the ability to teach well.

回答中没有明确讲教什么课程教的好,与短文意义略有差异,扣0.5分。如果是“teach English”的话,就对了。

2) able to teach English but not a native English speaker.

回答中没有指明英语教学的质量好坏,不太符合短文意义,扣0.5分。

3) the non-native speakers who are qualified for the job.

问题原句是过去时,回答中用现在时,时态不符,扣0.5分。

l 可得1分的回答:

1) non-native English teachers

短文中对的定义中包含两方面的定义:1. non-native ,2. qualified。回答中只涉及定义的一方面,扣1分。

2) non-native English teachers but had the required level of English.

回答不全面,扣1分。回答中提到的英语水平仅是英语教师资格要求中的一条,并不能代表有资格(qualified)。

3) qualified but unemployed for their being non-native speakers

回答中既有qualified又有nonnative,本应意义完整,但qualified后所跟unemployed,与原文意思矛盾,且qualified与unemployed两词意义也有矛盾之处,因此,扣1分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

1) non-native English teachers without right treatment. 回答不全面,且有部分内容有语言错误,扣1.5分。

2) non-native English speaker and have the required level of English.回答不全面,且有语言错误,扣1.5分。

l 得0分的回答:

1) employed as a teacher.

2) the native speakers

3) employers who have required level but a non-native.

回答答非所问或完全理解错误,不得分。

1999年6月考题
文章导读
有了孩子的妇女是否应该出去工作?这是许多人常常争论的话题。本文作者先是剖析了妇女工作的原因—为了挣钱,然后分别用事实(第一段)和讲道理(二、三段)说明这得不偿失。第一段引用了一个丈夫的话算了一笔账,证明妇女工作划不来;第二段指出经济因素并不是最重要的,家庭成员的感情需要才是最重要的。第三段先退一步,指出许多妇女呆的家里感到厌烦,但也有许多人从家务活中获得了最大的乐趣。最后一段以自己的亲身感受指出妇女进行工作是个草率的决定,暗示说她们的家里也许会得到更多。

第一题 Which word in the first two paragraphs best explains why many women have to work?
题解: 本题为主旨类题,要求考生总结出妇女工作的原因。在这两段中都提到了survive,可以知道妇女出去工作主要是为了生存。所以本题的答案应该是名词survive。当然,也可以理解为她们是为了挣钱来生存,所以economy或economics也可以算作正确答案。

要点: 注意问题中的which word,因此本题的答案应为一个单词,而不要答成“They must work to survive”一类的话。

第二题 Why did Marge and her husband think it an extravagance for Marge to go back to work?
题解: 此题属于细节类问题。文章第二段:玛基和她丈夫认为她重新外出工作对全家来说是一种奢望。他们有两个学龄前的孩子。如果把雇人照看孩子的费用、交通费用和增加的税款加在一起, 那么算下来将不但赚不到钱,收入实际上还可能减少。

要点: (1)本题所问内容从玛基和她丈夫的角度讲是没有发生的事情。即回答的内容与事实相反。故答案均采用与事实相反的虚拟语气形式。否则是要扣分的。

(2)问题是why,回答时最好用because开头(尽管省略because也不扣分)。

答案: Because they might end up with less money.

或 Because they would spend more than their earnings.

或 Because their earnings wouldn’t cover the spending.

或 Because they couldn’t afford the extra payments of double-worker family.

或 Because going back to work might cost more money.

第三题 What are the two major considerations in deciding whether women should go out to work?
题解: 题干中的consideration是寻找答案的关键词。从文章中可以在第三段找到consider一词,这一句明确地说“Economic factors are usually the first to be considered”,所以这里的economic factors肯定是答案的一个方面。但问题是“the two major considerations”,所以还有另一方面。根据这句话的下一句话,“The most important aspects of the decision have to do with the emotional needs of each member of the family”可以挑出来,即“the emotional needs”。

要点: 注意组织答案要规范和完善,如果Economic factors, emotional needs 为答案的话就不规范, 肯定不会得满分。

答案: Economic factors and emotional needs(of each family member)

或One is economic factors, the other is emotional needs.

或They are economic factors and emotional needs.

第四题 Some women would rather do housework and take care of their children than pursue a career because they feel______ .
题解: 本题较为简单,从第四段的对比论述可以知道答案在其最后一句话,即homemaking gives them the deepest satisfaction。

要点: 本题只答出从句部分即为正确答案,不要画蛇添足。

答案: satisfied with homemaking

或 that homemaking gives them the deepest satisfaction

或that homemaking and being with children give them deepest satisfaction

第五题 If given a second chance, the writer would probably choose to ______ .
题解: 此题属于推断类题。在第五段里,作者通过自身的体验总结说,不要轻易放弃家庭生活,她对自己迫不及待地出去工作表示后悔,并表示但愿能享受一下与自己的孩子在一起看世界的快乐。由此可断定, 若有机会她宁愿与女儿即家人呆在一起, 所以答案为stay home with her little girl 或 stay home and enjoy family life.

1997年1月
文章导读
为什么会产生交通事故?是不是因为车辆的速度太快了?本文第一段借英国公路交通法有关速度限制方面的发展与变更来影射这个回答。第二段指出超速是现在英国最普遍的机动车违规,并列举了三种违规现象。那么在多大程度上限速能减少交通事故呢?第三段列举了不同历史时期的数字加以佐证。文章最后一段提出了另一种看法,即在美国, 事故数字的减少被归因于交通密度的增加。

第一题 During which period could British motorists drive without speed limits?
题解 这一题要求综合第一段的第3、4、5三句来解答。第三句说到1930“speeding restrictions were done away with altogether”,接下来又说,“For five years motorists were free to drive at whatever speeds they liked”,因此可知,无速度限制的时间是从1930年起(包括1930年),延续了5年,即是1930、1931、1932、1933、1934这五年。最后一句“Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30 m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas”,说明到了1935年,speed limit又实行了。

要点: 提问是“during which period”,答案中只要给出一个时间的表达式就可以了,没有必要以整句作答,以免言多有失。有一位考生这样回答:During 1930 and 1935 could British motorists drive without speed limits. 姑且字数多了一个不说,这个倒装也有点问题。松一点的评委给1.5分,严一点的给1分,你说亏不亏?

答案: From 1930 to 1935.

或between 1930 and 1935

或1930、1931、1932、1933、1934。

第二题 What measures were adopted in 1935 in addition to the speeding restrictions?
题解 题干中的1935是寻找答案的明确线索,明显应在第一段的最后一句话“Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas, along with the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings”。题干中的speed restrictions对应于这句话中的a 30 m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas,剩下的自然就是the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings。

要点 本题只要回答出what measures即可,没有必要再加上谓语部分。

答案 Driving tests and pedestrian crossings.

或 The introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings.

第三题 Speeding is a motoring offense a driver commits when he __________.
题解 从题干中的“motoring offense”出现在第二段的第一句话。这句话也就是第二段的主题句。它总领了后面对三种speeding的描述,在这三种情况中,speeding都是exceeding the … (speed) limit。

要点 空格中要求填的是谓语,用动词来解释speeding这个词,因此必须填动词的形式。同时要注意第三人称单数和时态。

答案 exceeds the speed limits. 或 drives over the speed limit 或 breaking the speeding laws.

第四题What is the opinion of British authorities concerning speeding laws?
题解 题干中的British authorities即是指第三段第二句话中的the Ministry of Transport,而这句话中的maintain一词则是引述中常用的一个词,常表示“……认为”的意思,那么它后面的内容就是本题的答案了。

要点 (1)本题较好回答,但要注意避免原文照抄,否则会被扣掉0.5分。其实只要将“The Ministry of Transport maintains”改成“They maintain”(注意单复数)就行了。

(2)简练作答的话,要注意把宾语从句的引导词“that”舍掉,否则显得有些多余,弄不好会丢分。

答案 Speed limits reduce accidents. 或Speed limits help reduce accidents.

第五题 What reason do Americans give for the reduction in traffic accidents?
题解 在四级考试中,也有很多送分的题。本题中的“Americans”告诉我们它的答案肯定在最后一段。其实,只要大体上读懂第四段的第一句话,看出其中的“due(rather)to”是表示原因的即能做出正确答案,即“the increase in traffic density”。

要点 注意与问题所问的方式一致, 否则要扣分。
1999年1月考题
文章导读
一个英语教师的标准是什么?是不是只要是a native English speaker就可以了呢?A native English speaker是否就比a non-native English speaker强呢?该篇短文对比了对英语教师过去和现在的职业要求和资格评价的情况,介绍了现在对本族语英语教师和非本族语英语教师一视同仁的变化。
第一题 The selection of English teachers used to be mainly based on ________.
题解:本题的重要线索是题干中的“used to”。文章的第二段提到“十年前,……只要是a native English speaker,你就足以成为一名英语教师了”。换句话说,就是过去选择英语教师的标准就是看你是不是a native English speaker。所以本题的正确答案可以是:…whether they were English speakers。

要点:(1)注意答案是作“on”宾语,后面又有“是否……”,答案应该用由whether引导的名词性从句;

(2)题干中的“used to”告诉我们答案中也要用过去时态;如果信手写成whether they are English speakers是要扣0.5分的;

(3)题干中的“English teachers”是一个复数,答案中也要用复数。如果信手写成whether he was English speakers是要扣0.5分的;

请参考其它的评分标准:

l 可得2.0分的回答:

1) their nationality

2) whether they were native speakers or not

3) the language the teachers had as mother tongue

4) the job applicants’ nationality

5) where they came from and their mother tongue

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) whether is a native speaker or not

从句中缺主语,语法错误扣0.5分。

2) their citizenship, whether the job applicants were English speakers or not.

超词,共11个词,扣0.5分。 l 可得1分的回答

1) being a native speaker was enough to get you employed

照抄原文,扣0.5分。与所补充句子语法不搭配,扣0.5分。

2) they were native speakers or not and whether professional status

“whether…or not”句式表达错误,扣0.5分。部分内容与问题无关,扣0.5分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

1) nation. A English man is enough to be a English teacher.

回答不全面,仅包含部分正确内容,扣0.5分。语法错误(应为,时态错误应为过去时)扣0.5分。

2) Speaking. You should being a native speaker.

回答不全面,包含部分正确内容,得1 分。语言错误,扣0.5分。

l 可得0分的回答:

1) their professional status and skills

2) a personal level

3) a native English speaker

4) the knowledge, the skills and the attitudes.

没有回答出正确内容,不得分。

第二题 What did non-native English teachers deserve but seldom enjoy?
题解:本题有较明确的线索,在第三段中有“something they have always deserved but seldom enjoyed”,本题的答案显然是这个“something”,那么它究竟指的是什么呢?答案很简单,在something的前面有一个破折号,去找一找前面的名词短语就是了,所以答案是:the same status as their native counterparts。

要点:问题是以what进行的提问而且问的是事物,所以要以名词的形式作答。由于本题较简单,扣分也比较狠。

l 可得2.0分的回答:.

1) The status that/which the native counterparts have.

2) The same status as the native English teachers

3) Having the same status as those native speakers.

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) Same status as their native counterparts. 语法错误,应为The same status,扣0.5分。

2) There shouldn’t be linguistic discrimination. 问题以what提问,应回答具体事物,但句子内容基本切合题义,因此扣0.5分。

3) Raising them to the same status as the native speakers. 语态错误,应为被动语态,扣0.5分。

4) They were at the same status as the native English teachers. 时态错误,应为现在时,扣0.5分。

l 可得1分的回答:

1. Recognition of professional status and skills and a job. 回答包含部分答案,但不全面也不清楚,扣1分。

2. The result that they have the same status as their native counterparts. 问题问的是没有享受到的事物,回答中用the result,不太合题意,扣0.5分。超词,扣0.5分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

1) Raising of their status. 仅提到地位的提升,但提升到什么程度这一关键内容没有涉及,因此扣1.5分。

2) They can teach English like native English teachers.

仅提到象本族语教师一样讲课,但在什么方面一样没有涉及,忽略了关键部分,扣1.5分。

l 可得0分的回答:

1) Linguistic discrimination.

2) Like their native counterparts.

3) The chances to be an English teacher.

4) The native English teacher

完全答非所问,不得分。

第三题 What kind of people can now find a job as an English teacher?
题解: 本题有两处重要线索,只要找到一处,即能找到正确答案。这两处线索分别是:第三段的第一句话说,现在雇主们只去注意那些……的人,省略号的部分即是答题的关键。另一处线索是第四段的第二句话,“只要他们能……”,能答出此处,也是正确的。

要点: (1)问题是“什么样的人”,因此本题的作答应该是名词短语,最好用定语从句。

(2)题干中的“can”表明这是现在时,这是一个重要的线索。

其它的评分标准:

标准答案:

Those who are qualified.

Those who can teach English effectively.

l 可得2分的回答:

1) Those who have good skills and attitudes to teach effectively.

2) Both qualified native English speakers and non-native speakers.

3) Whoever has the knowledge, the skills and the right attitudes.

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) Having the knowledge, the skill and teaching English effectively.

问题中问的是哪种人能找到教师工作,回答与提问不对应,仅提到应具备的素质,因此扣分。

2) Those who have knowledge and skills, can teach English effectively. 语言错误,应为,扣分。

3) Who can teach and have the required level of English. 语言错误,应添加,才能具有名词性,扣分。

l 可得1分的回答:

1) People who has knowledge, the skills and attitudes to teach English effectively. 语言错误,应为have,扣分。超词,扣分。

2) The knowledgeable, skillful people who have the required English level.

错误使用knowledgeable,该词意思是“渊博的”,与答案内容无关,扣0.5分。若具体回答成为一个英语教师的条件,应为the knowledge, the skills, and the right attitudes,回答中仅提到the skill一项,扣0.5分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

1) The people who had the required level of English. 答案关键内容缺失较多,扣1分。时态错误,扣0.5分。

2) A people who have the attitudes to teacher English effectively. 句中语言错误较多,扣0.5分。句子语意与原文意义相差较远,扣1分。

l 可得0分的回答:

1) He’s the knowledge, the skills, attitudes to teach English effectively.

2) People can teach English effectively.

!!特别提示:

这两个回答看上去与问题毫不相关。但稍加改动即为正确答案:

1) He who has the knowledge … (1.5分)

2) People who can teach… (2分)

也许写下这两个回答的考生已经理解了文章,但由于他们严重错误的表达,他们的回答变得答非所问,不能得分。这一点请大家务必注意。

第四题What is the result of the “new form of discrimination”(Line 5, Para.4)?
题解: 这是类似于阅读理解中词义判断的题,但与做阅读理解不同的是,在阅读理解中存在两种词汇题,其一是考查学生利用上下文猜单词的能力,其二是考查根据上下文对(主要是熟悉的)词语的理解能力。而在简答题中,考查的对象主要是第二点。

就本题而言,原文中已经在括号中给出了不认识的单词的汉语意思,因此,这是不猜测词义的题,而是要求根据上下文判断这外短语在本文中的所指,是一道理解的题。

在找到第四段中的这个短语后,可以发现在“a new form of discrimination”的破折号之后的部分内容就是答案。稍微组织一下,可以全面的回答为 it singled out the unqualified and liberated the linguistically oppressed。

如果确实理解了这句话,可以看出它的意思是“它剔除了不合格的(教师),解放了以前在语言上受压迫的(教师)”。

要点: 问题是“……的结果”,应该用完整的句子作答。

其它的评分标准:

l 标准答案:

The linguistically oppressed are liberated.

Unqualified English teachers are singled out.

l 可得2分的回答:

1) The result is that the linguistically oppressed were liberated.

2) Singling out the unqualified, liberating the linguistically oppressed.

3) The unqualified teachers are singled out while the qualified liberated.

4) It liberated the non-native English teachers linguistically oppressed.

5) It selected the qualified teachers and singled out the unqualified.

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) The inqualified English teachers are singled out. 语言错误,扣0.5分。

2) It single out the unqualified liberated ^ linguistically oppressed. 多处语言错误,扣0..5分。

3) To liberate the linguistically oppressed 不定式表将来,问题问的是已产生的后果,时间不符,扣0.5分。

l 可得1分的回答:

1) Qualification may be more important. 句子意义与短文内容不贴切,扣1分。

2) The non-native teachers replace those unqualified native teachers.

回答不准确,什么样的非本族语教师没有说清楚,这恰恰是答案的重要部分,扣1分。

3) The unqualified native English teachers will be fired.

句子时态错误,扣0.5分。句子含义不准确,扣0.5分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

The non-natives could also become an English teacher.

与短文意义相差太远,扣1.5分。

l 得0分的回答:

1) Teachers are justified if they were qualified.

2) It will improve the teachers’ all kinds of level.

3) The non-native speaks are liberate.

完全答非所问,不得分。

第五题 The phrase “the linguistically oppressed”(Line 6, Para. 4) refers to those who were_________.
题解: 本题的短文中的位置与第四题在同一句话中,但答题的线索却不相同。它的线索其实是基于对全文的理解。本文主要是就英语教师的问题,将过去和现在人们对native English speakers和non-native English speakers的英语教师的态度和评判的标准加以对比。在第二段(问题的第一题)指出在过去,只要是native English speaker,你就能是英语教师了,这暗示人们对native English speaker的盲目倾向;第三段指出了人们现在评判英语教师的标准(第二题),最后一句说,“Non-natives are happy--- linguistic discrimination(语言上的歧视)is a thing of the past”,言外之意是过去Non-natives 在过去是受歧视的。那么“受歧视的”与“受压迫的”明显指的是同一种人,所以本题的答案很简单,就是non-native English speakers 的英语教师,可以用英语表达为:non-native teachers of English。

但本题中有一个陷阱,就是前面的it singled out the unqualified。在过去受压迫的non-native teachers of English中肯定也有合格的和不合格的,所以显然不是所有的non-native teachers of English都被解放了,那些不合格的还是被剔除了。所以如果只答出non-native teachers of English的话,只是理解对了一半,最终本题的正确答案应该是在non-native teachers of English前加上qualified一词。

要点: (1)问题中要填的是定语从句的表语部分,表示“什么样的人”,因此本题的作答应该是名词短语而不要用句子。

(2)题干中的“who were”表明这是过去时,这是一个重要的线索。

l 标准答案:

qualified non –native teachers of English.

l 可得2分的回答:

1) qualified in teaching English but were non-native speakers.

2) good English teachers but were non-natives.

3) non-native English teachers who could teach English effectively.

l 可得1.5分的回答:

1) non-native speakers but have the ability to teach well.

回答中没有明确讲教什么课程教的好,与短文意义略有差异,扣0.5分。如果是“teach English”的话,就对了。

2) able to teach English but not a native English speaker.

回答中没有指明英语教学的质量好坏,不太符合短文意义,扣0.5分。

3) the non-native speakers who are qualified for the job.

问题原句是过去时,回答中用现在时,时态不符,扣0.5分。

l 可得1分的回答:

1) non-native English teachers

短文中对的定义中包含两方面的定义:1. non-native ,2. qualified。回答中只涉及定义的一方面,扣1分。

2) non-native English teachers but had the required level of English.

回答不全面,扣1分。回答中提到的英语水平仅是英语教师资格要求中的一条,并不能代表有资格(qualified)。

3) qualified but unemployed for their being non-native speakers

回答中既有qualified又有nonnative,本应意义完整,但qualified后所跟unemployed,与原文意思矛盾,且qualified与unemployed两词意义也有矛盾之处,因此,扣1分。

l 可得0.5分的回答:

1) non-native English teachers without right treatment. 回答不全面,且有部分内容有语言错误,扣1.5分。

2) non-native English speaker and have the required level of English.回答不全面,且有语言错误,扣1.5分。

l 得0分的回答:

1) employed as a teacher.

2) the native speakers

3) employers who have required level but a non-native.

回答答非所问或完全理解错误,不得分。

1999年6月考题
文章导读
有了孩子的妇女是否应该出去工作?这是许多人常常争论的话题。本文作者先是剖析了妇女工作的原因—为了挣钱,然后分别用事实(第一段)和讲道理(二、三段)说明这得不偿失。第一段引用了一个丈夫的话算了一笔账,证明妇女工作划不来;第二段指出经济因素并不是最重要的,家庭成员的感情需要才是最重要的。第三段先退一步,指出许多妇女呆的家里感到厌烦,但也有许多人从家务活中获得了最大的乐趣。最后一段以自己的亲身感受指出妇女进行工作是个草率的决定,暗示说她们的家里也许会得到更多。

第一题 Which word in the first two paragraphs best explains why many women have to work?
题解: 本题为主旨类题,要求考生总结出妇女工作的原因。在这两段中都提到了survive,可以知道妇女出去工作主要是为了生存。所以本题的答案应该是名词survive。当然,也可以理解为她们是为了挣钱来生存,所以economy或economics也可以算作正确答案。

要点: 注意问题中的which word,因此本题的答案应为一个单词,而不要答成“They must work to survive”一类的话。

第二题 Why did Marge and her husband think it an extravagance for Marge to go back to work?
题解: 此题属于细节类问题。文章第二段:玛基和她丈夫认为她重新外出工作对全家来说是一种奢望。他们有两个学龄前的孩子。如果把雇人照看孩子的费用、交通费用和增加的税款加在一起, 那么算下来将不但赚不到钱,收入实际上还可能减少。

要点: (1)本题所问内容从玛基和她丈夫的角度讲是没有发生的事情。即回答的内容与事实相反。故答案均采用与事实相反的虚拟语气形式。否则是要扣分的。

(2)问题是why,回答时最好用because开头(尽管省略because也不扣分)。

答案: Because they might end up with less money.

或 Because they would spend more than their earnings.

或 Because their earnings wouldn’t cover the spending.

或 Because they couldn’t afford the extra payments of double-worker family.

或 Because going back to work might cost more money.

第三题 What are the two major considerations in deciding whether women should go out to work?
题解: 题干中的consideration是寻找答案的关键词。从文章中可以在第三段找到consider一词,这一句明确地说“Economic factors are usually the first to be considered”,所以这里的economic factors肯定是答案的一个方面。但问题是“the two major considerations”,所以还有另一方面。根据这句话的下一句话,“The most important aspects of the decision have to do with the emotional needs of each member of the family”可以挑出来,即“the emotional needs”。

要点: 注意组织答案要规范和完善,如果Economic factors, emotional needs 为答案的话就不规范, 肯定不会得满分。

答案: Economic factors and emotional needs(of each family member)

或One is economic factors, the other is emotional needs.

或They are economic factors and emotional needs.

第四题 Some women would rather do housework and take care of their children than pursue a career because they feel______ .
题解: 本题较为简单,从第四段的对比论述可以知道答案在其最后一句话,即homemaking gives them the deepest satisfaction。

要点: 本题只答出从句部分即为正确答案,不要画蛇添足。

答案: satisfied with homemaking

或 that homemaking gives them the deepest satisfaction

或that homemaking and being with children give them deepest satisfaction

第五题 If given a second chance, the writer would probably choose to ______ .
题解: 此题属于推断类题。在第五段里,作者通过自身的体验总结说,不要轻易放弃家庭生活,她对自己迫不及待地出去工作表示后悔,并表示但愿能享受一下与自己的孩子在一起看世界的快乐。由此可断定, 若有机会她宁愿与女儿即家人呆在一起, 所以答案为stay home with her little girl 或 stay home and enjoy family life.

1997年1月
文章导读
为什么会产生交通事故?是不是因为车辆的速度太快了?本文第一段借英国公路交通法有关速度限制方面的发展与变更来影射这个回答。第二段指出超速是现在英国最普遍的机动车违规,并列举了三种违规现象。那么在多大程度上限速能减少交通事故呢?第三段列举了不同历史时期的数字加以佐证。文章最后一段提出了另一种看法,即在美国, 事故数字的减少被归因于交通密度的增加。

第一题 During which period could British motorists drive without speed limits?
题解 这一题要求综合第一段的第3、4、5三句来解答。第三句说到1930“speeding restrictions were done away with altogether”,接下来又说,“For five years motorists were free to drive at whatever speeds they liked”,因此可知,无速度限制的时间是从1930年起(包括1930年),延续了5年,即是1930、1931、1932、1933、1934这五年。最后一句“Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30 m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas”,说明到了1935年,speed limit又实行了。

要点: 提问是“during which period”,答案中只要给出一个时间的表达式就可以了,没有必要以整句作答,以免言多有失。有一位考生这样回答:During 1930 and 1935 could British motorists drive without speed limits. 姑且字数多了一个不说,这个倒装也有点问题。松一点的评委给1.5分,严一点的给1分,你说亏不亏?

答案: From 1930 to 1935.

或between 1930 and 1935

或1930、1931、1932、1933、1934。

第二题 What measures were adopted in 1935 in addition to the speeding restrictions?
题解 题干中的1935是寻找答案的明确线索,明显应在第一段的最后一句话“Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas, along with the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings”。题干中的speed restrictions对应于这句话中的a 30 m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas,剩下的自然就是the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings。

要点 本题只要回答出what measures即可,没有必要再加上谓语部分。

答案 Driving tests and pedestrian crossings.

或 The introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings.

第三题 Speeding is a motoring offense a driver commits when he __________.
题解 从题干中的“motoring offense”出现在第二段的第一句话。这句话也就是第二段的主题句。它总领了后面对三种speeding的描述,在这三种情况中,speeding都是exceeding the … (speed) limit。

要点 空格中要求填的是谓语,用动词来解释speeding这个词,因此必须填动词的形式。同时要注意第三人称单数和时态。

答案 exceeds the speed limits. 或 drives over the speed limit 或 breaking the speeding laws.

第四题What is the opinion of British authorities concerning speeding laws?
题解 题干中的British authorities即是指第三段第二句话中的the Ministry of Transport,而这句话中的maintain一词则是引述中常用的一个词,常表示“……认为”的意思,那么它后面的内容就是本题的答案了。

要点 (1)本题较好回答,但要注意避免原文照抄,否则会被扣掉0.5分。其实只要将“The Ministry of Transport maintains”改成“They maintain”(注意单复数)就行了。

(2)简练作答的话,要注意把宾语从句的引导词“that”舍掉,否则显得有些多余,弄不好会丢分。

答案 Speed limits reduce accidents. 或Speed limits help reduce accidents.

第五题 What reason do Americans give for the reduction in traffic accidents?
题解 在四级考试中,也有很多送分的题。本题中的“Americans”告诉我们它的答案肯定在最后一段。其实,只要大体上读懂第四段的第一句话,看出其中的“due(rather)to”是表示原因的即能做出正确答案,即“the increase in traffic density”。

要点 注意与问题所问的方式一致, 否则要扣分。

                                                                                                                                                          ___Blue Freezing Point

阅读全文
0 0

相关文章推荐

img
取 消
img