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在C#中读写INI文件

发表于2004/12/31 22:00:00  856人阅读

分类: C#函数及方法

INI文件就是扩展名为“ini”的文件。在Windows系统中,INI文件是很多,最重要的就是“System.ini”“System32.ini”“Win.ini”。该文件主要存放用户所做的选择以及系统的各种参数。用户可以通过修改INI文件,来改变应用程序和系统的很多配置。但自从Windows 95的退出,在Windows系统中引入了注册表的概念,INI文件在Windows系统的地位就开始不断下滑,这是因为注册表的独特优点,使应用程序和系统都把许多参数和初始化信息放进了注册表中。但在某些场合,INI文件还拥有其不可替代的地位。本文就来探讨一下C#是如何对INI进行读写操作。

INI文件的结构



INI文件是一种按照特点方式排列的文本文件。每一个INI文件构成都非常类似,由若干段落(section)组成,在每个带括号的标题下面,是若干个以单个单词开头的关键词(keyword)和一个等号,等号右边的就是关键字对应的值(value)。其一般形式如下:


[Section1]

  KeyWord1 = Valuel

  KeyWord2 = Value2

   ……

  [Section2]

  KeyWord3 = Value3

  KeyWord4 = Value4



本文中介绍的程序设计及运行环境:

微软视窗2000 高级服务器版

● .Net Framework SDK正式版

C#和Win32 API函数



C#并不像C++,拥有属于自己的类库。C#使用的类库是.Net框架为所有.Net程序开发提供的一个共有的类库——.Net FrameWork SDK。虽然.Net FrameWork SDK内容十分庞大,功能也非常强大,但还不能面面俱到,至少它并没有提供直接操作INI文件所需要的相关的类。在本文中,C#操作INI文件使用的是Windows系统自带Win32API函数——WritePrivateProfileString()和GetPrivateProfileString()函数。这二个函数都位于“kernel32.dll”文件中。

我们知道在C#中使用的类库都是托管代码(Managed Code)文件,而Win32API函数所处的文件,都是非托管代码(Unmanaged Code)文件。这就导致了在C#中不可能直接使用这些非托管代码文件中的函数。好在.Net框架为了保持对下的兼容,也为了充分利用以前的资源,提出了互操作,通过互操作可以实现对Win32API函数的调用。互操作不仅适用于Win32API函数,还可以用来访问托管的COM对象。C#中对Win32API函数的互操作是通过命名空间“System.Runtime.InteropServices”中的“DllImport”特征类来实现的。它的主要作用是指示此属性化方法是作为非托管DLL的输出实现的。下面代码就是在C#利用命名空间“System.Runtime.InteropServices”中的“DllImport”特征类申明上面二个Win32API函数:

C#申明INI文件的写操作函数WritePrivateProfileString():


[ DllImport ( "kernel32" ) ]

               private static extern long WritePrivateProfileString ( string

section ,

                       string key , string val , string filePath ) ;



参数说明:sectionINI文件中的段落;keyINI文件中的关键字;valINI文件中关键字的数值;filePathINI文件的完整的路径和名称。

C#申明INI文件的读操作函数GetPrivateProfileString():


[ DllImport ( "kernel32" ) ]

        private static extern int GetPrivateProfileString ( string section ,

               string key , string def , StringBuilder retVal ,

               int size , string filePath ) ;



参数说明:sectionINI文件中的段落名称;keyINI文件中的关键字;def:无法读取时候时候的缺省数值;retVal:读取数值;size:数值的大小;filePathINI文件的完整路径和名称。


INI文件进行写操作,是通过组件button2"Click"事件来实现的。这里有一点应该注意,当在调用WritePrivateProfileString()对INI文件进行写操作的时候,如果此时在INI文件中存在和要写入的信息相同的段落名称和关键字,则将覆盖此INI信息。下面是button2组件的"Click"事件对应的代码清单:


private void button2_Click ( object sender , System.EventArgs e )

        {

        string FileName = textBox1.Text ;

        string section = textBox2.Text ;

        string key = textBox3.Text ;

        string keyValue = textBox4.Text ;

        WritePrivateProfileString ( section , key , keyValue , FileName ) ;

               MessageBox.Show  ( "成功写入INI文件!" , "信息" ) ;

               }



C#对INI文件进行读操作:

正确读取INI的必须满足三个前提:INI文件的全路径、段落名称和关键字名称。否则就无法正确读取。你可以设定读取不成功后的缺省数值,在下面的程序中,为了直观设定的是无法读取对应数值!字符串,读取INI文件是通过button3组件的“Click”事件来实现的,下面是其对应的代码清单:


private void button3_Click ( object sender , System.EventArgs e )

        {

               StringBuilder temp = new StringBuilder ( 255 ) ;

               string FileName = textBox1.Text ;

               string section = textBox2.Text ;

               string key = textBox3.Text ;

               int i = GetPrivateProfileString ( section , key ,"无法读取对应数值!",

               temp , 255 , FileName ) ;

                       //显示读取的数值

                       textBox4.Text = temp.ToString  ( ) ;

               }

 

using System ;

using System.Drawing ;

using System.Collections ;

using System.ComponentModel ;

using System.Windows.Forms ;

using System.Data ;

using System.Runtime.InteropServices ;

using System.Text ;

namespace C_操作INI文件__写操作

{

        public class Form1 : System.Windows.Forms.Form

        {

               private System.Windows.Forms.Button button1 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox textBox1 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.Button button2 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox textBox2 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox textBox3 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox textBox4 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.Label label1 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.Label label2 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.Label label3 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.Button button3 ;

               private System.Windows.Forms.OpenFileDialog openFileDialog1 ;

               private System.ComponentModel.Container components = null ;

               public Form1 ( )

               {

                       InitializeComponent ( ) ;

               }

               protected override void Dispose (  bool disposing  )

               {

                       if (  disposing  )

                       {

                               if  ( components != null ) 

                               {

                                      components.Dispose ( ) ;

                               }

                       }

                       base.Dispose (  disposing  ) ;

               }

 

               [ DllImport ( "kernel32" ) ]

               private static extern long WritePrivateProfileString ( string

section ,

                       string key , string val , string filePath ) ;

               [ DllImport ( "kernel32" ) ]

               private static extern int GetPrivateProfileString ( string section ,

                       string key , string def , StringBuilder retVal ,

                       int size , string filePath ) ;

               private void InitializeComponent ( )

               {

               this.button1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button ( ) ;

               this.textBox1 = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox ( ) ;

               this.button2 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button ( ) ;

               this.textBox2 = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox ( ) ;

               this.textBox3 = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox ( ) ;

               this.textBox4 = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox ( ) ;

               this.label1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label ( ) ;

               this.label2 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label ( ) ;

               this.label3 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label ( ) ;

               this.button3 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button ( ) ;

               this.openFileDialog1 = new

System.Windows.Forms.OpenFileDialog ( ) ;

                       this.SuspendLayout ( ) ;

        this.button1.FlatStyle = System.Windows.Forms.FlatStyle.Flat ;

        this.button1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 238 , 20 ) ;

        this.button1.Name = "button1" ;

        this.button1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size ( 100 , 32 ) ;

        this.button1.TabIndex = 0 ;

        this.button1.Text = "选择INI文件" ;

        this.button1.Click += new System.EventHandler ( this.button1_Click ) ;

        this.textBox1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 58 , 22 ) ;

        this.textBox1.Name = "textBox1" ;

        this.textBox1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size ( 162 , 21 ) ;

        this.textBox1.TabIndex = 1 ;

        this.textBox1.Text = "" ;

        this.button2.FlatStyle = System.Windows.Forms.FlatStyle.Flat ;

        this.button2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 86 , 168 ) ;

        this.button2.Name = "button2" ;

        this.button2.Size = new System.Drawing.Size ( 98 , 30 ) ;
 

this.button2.TabIndex = 3 ;

        this.button2.Text = "写入INI文件" ;

        this.button2.Click += new System.EventHandler ( this.button2_Click ) ;

        this.textBox2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 160 , 62 ) ;

        this.textBox2.Name = "textBox2" ;

        this.textBox2.Size = new System.Drawing.Size ( 176 , 21 ) ;

        this.textBox2.TabIndex = 5 ;

        this.textBox2.Text = "" ;

        this.textBox3.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 160 , 94 ) ;

        this.textBox3.Name = "textBox3" ;

        this.textBox3.Size = new System.Drawing.Size ( 176 , 21 ) ;

        this.textBox3.TabIndex = 6 ;

        this.textBox3.Text = "" ;

        this.textBox4.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 160 , 128 ) ;

        this.textBox4.Name = "textBox4" ;

        this.textBox4.Size = new System.Drawing.Size ( 176 , 21 ) ;

        this.textBox4.TabIndex = 7 ;

        this.textBox4.Text = "" ;

        this.label1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 56 , 62 ) ;

        this.label1.Name = "label1" ;

        this.label1.TabIndex = 8 ;

        this.label1.Text = "段落名称:" ;

        this.label2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 66 , 96 ) ;

        this.label2.Name = "label2" ;

        this.label2.TabIndex = 9 ;

        this.label2.Text = "关键字:" ;

        this.label3.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 42 , 130 ) ;

        this.label3.Name = "label3" ;

        this.label3.TabIndex = 10 ;

        this.label3.Text = "关键字数值:" ;

        this.button3.FlatStyle = System.Windows.Forms.FlatStyle.Flat ;

        this.button3.Location = new System.Drawing.Point ( 208 , 168 ) ;

        this.button3.Name = "button3" ;

        this.button3.Size = new System.Drawing.Size ( 98 , 30 ) ;

        this.button3.TabIndex = 11 ;

        this.button3.Text = "读取INI数值" ;

        this.button3.Click += new System.EventHandler ( this.button3_Click ) ;

        this.openFileDialog1.Filter = "INI 文件|*.ini" ;

        this.AutoScaleBaseSize = new System.Drawing.Size ( 6 , 14 ) ;

        this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size ( 366 , 217 ) ;

        this.Controls.AddRange ( new System.Windows.Forms.Control [ ] {

                 this.button3 ,

                 this.textBox4 ,

                 this.textBox3 ,

                 this.textBox2 ,

                 this.button2 ,

                 this.textBox1 ,

                 this.button1 ,

                 this.label3 ,

          this.label2 ,

                 this.label1 } ) ;

        this.MaximizeBox = false ;

        this.Name = "Form1" ;

        this.Text = "C#操作INI文件--写操作" ;

        this.ResumeLayout ( false ) ;

        }

        [STAThread]

        static void Main ( ) 

        {

               Application.Run ( new Form1 ( )  ) ;

        }

        private void button1_Click ( object sender , System.EventArgs e )

        {

               openFileDialog1.ShowDialog ( ) ;

               textBox1.Text = openFileDialog1.FileName ;

        }

        //写入INI文件

        private void button2_Click ( object sender , System.EventArgs e )

        {

               string FileName = textBox1.Text ;

               string section = textBox2.Text ;

               string key = textBox3.Text ;

               string keyValue = textBox4.Text ;

               WritePrivateProfileString ( section , key , keyValue , FileName ) ;

               MessageBox.Show  ( "成功写入INI文件!" , "信息" ) ;

        }

        //读取指定INI文件的特定段落中的关键字的数值

        private void button3_Click ( object sender , System.EventArgs e )

        {


 

this.Controls.AddRange ( new System.Windows.Forms.Control [ ] {

                 this.button3 ,

                 this.textBox4 ,

                 this.textBox3 ,

                 this.textBox2 ,

                 this.button2 ,

                 this.textBox1 ,

                 this.button1 ,

                 this.label3 ,

          this.label2 ,

                 this.label1 } ) ;

        this.MaximizeBox = false ;

        this.Name = "Form1" ;

        this.Text = "C#操作INI文件--写操作" ;

        this.ResumeLayout ( false ) ;

        }

        [STAThread]

        static void Main ( ) 

        {

               Application.Run ( new Form1 ( )  ) ;

        }

        private void button1_Click ( object sender , System.EventArgs e )

        {

               openFileDialog1.ShowDialog ( ) ;

               textBox1.Text = openFileDialog1.FileName ;

        }

        //写入INI文件

        private void button2_Click ( object sender , System.EventArgs e )

        {

               string FileName = textBox1.Text ;

               string section = textBox2.Text ;

               string key = textBox3.Text ;

               string keyValue = textBox4.Text ;

               WritePrivateProfileString ( section , key , keyValue , FileName ) ;

               MessageBox.Show  ( "成功写入INI文件!" , "信息" ) ;

        }

        //读取指定INI文件的特定段落中的关键字的数值

        private void button3_Click ( object sender , System.EventArgs e )

        {

               StringBuilder temp = new StringBuilder ( 255 ) ;

               string FileName = textBox1.Text ;

               string section = textBox2.Text ;

               string key = textBox3.Text ;

               int i = GetPrivateProfileString ( section , key ,

               "无法读取对应数值!" , emp , 255 , FileName ) ;

               //显示读取的数值

                       textBox4.Text = temp.ToString  ( ) ;

               }

        }

}

 

总结



通过上面的这些介绍,可以看成C#操作INI文件的过程,其实就是C#调用Win32API函数的过程。掌握了如何在C#申明Win32API函数,再来操作INI就显得非常简单。

 

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