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设计模式c#语言描述——装饰(Decorator)模式

发表于2004/6/23 15:29:00  621人阅读

装饰模式又名包装模式,以对客户端透明的方式扩展对象的功能,是继承关系的一个替代方案。它使用原来被装饰的类的一个子类的实例,把客户端的调用委派到被装饰类,客户端并不会觉得对象在装饰前和装饰后有什么不同。在以下情况下应使用装饰模式:需要扩展一个类的功能,或给一个类增加附加责任。动态地给一个对象增加功能,这些功能可以再动态地撤销。需要增加由一些基本功能的排列组合而产生的非常大量的功能,从而使继承关系变得不现实。

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类图如下所示:

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装饰模式包括如下角色:

抽象构件(Component):给出一个抽象接口,以规范准备接收附加责任的对象。

具体构件(Concrete Component):定义一个将要接收附加责任的类。

装饰(Decorator):持有一个构件对象的实例,并定义一个与抽象构件接口一致的接口。

具体装饰(Concrete Decorator):负责给构件对象“贴上”附加的责任。

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Component:

public interface Component

???? {

???????? void sampleOperation();

???? }// END INTERFACE DEFINITION Component

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Decorator:

???? public? class Decorator : Component

???? {

???????? private Component component;

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???????? public? Decorator(Component component)

???????? {

????????????? this.component=component;

???????? }

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???????? public virtual void sampleOperation()

???????? {

????????????? component.sampleOperation();

???????? }

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???? }// END CLASS DEFINITION Decorator

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ConcreteComponent:

???? public class ConcreteComponent?? : Component

???? {

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???????? public? void sampleOperation()

???????? {

???????? Console.WriteLine ("ConcreteComponent sampleOperation");

???????? }

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???? }// END CLASS DEFINITION ConcreteComponent

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ConcreteDecorator1:

???? public class ConcreteDecorator1? : Decorator

???? {

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???????? public ConcreteDecorator1(Component component):base(component)

???????? {

?????????????

???????? }

???????? override public? void sampleOperation()

???????? {

???????? base.sampleOperation ();

???????? Console.WriteLine ("ConcreteDecorator1 sampleOperation");

???????? }

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???? }// END CLASS DEFINITION ConcreteDecorator1

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ConcreteDecorator2:

???? public class ConcreteDecorator2? : Decorator

???? {

???????? public ConcreteDecorator2 (Component component):base(component)

???????? {

???????? }

???????? override public void sampleOperation()

???????? {

????????????? base.sampleOperation ();

????????????? Console.WriteLine ("ConcreteDecorator2 sampleOperation");

???????? }

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}// END CLASS DEFINITION ConcreteDecorator2

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Client:

static void Main(string[] args)

???????? {

????????????? Component component=new ConcreteComponent ();

????????????? Component concretedecorator1=new ConcreteDecorator1 (component); // 包装

????????????? Component concretedecorator2=new ConcreteDecorator2 (concretedecorator1);

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????????????? concretedecorator2.sampleOperation ();

???? }

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程序输出如下:

ConcreteComponent sampleOperation

ConcreteDecorator1 sampleOperation

ConcreteDecorator2 sampleOperation

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