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使用 .NET的IO(5)

发表于2002/4/17 9:02:00  798人阅读

查找现有的文件和目录

您还可以使用独立存储文件来搜索现有的目录和文件。请记住,在存储区中,文件名和目录名是相对于虚文件系统的根目录指定的。此外,Windows 文件系统中的文件和目录名不区分大小写。

要搜索某个目录,请使用 IsolatedStorageFile 的 GetDirectoryNames 实例方法。GetDirectoryNames 采用表示搜索模式的字符串。支持使用单字符 (?) 和多字符 (*) 通配符。这些通配符不能出现在名称的路径部分。也就是说,directory1/*ect* 是有效的搜索字符串,而 *ect*/directory2 不是有效的搜索字符串。

要搜索某个文件,请使用 IsolatedStorageFile GetFileNames 实例方法。对应用于 GetDirectoryNames 的搜索字符串中通配符的相同限制也适用于 GetFileNames

GetDirectoryNamesGetFileNames 都不是递归的,即 IsolatedStorageFile 不提供用于列出存储区中所有目录或文件的方法。但是,下面的代码中部分是递归方法的示例。另外还要注意,GetDirectoryNamesGetFileNames 只返回找到的项的目录名或文件名。例如,如果找到目录 RootDir/SubDir/SubSubDir 的匹配项,结果数组中将返回 SubSubDir

FindingExistingFilesAndDirectories 示例

下面的代码示例阐释如何在独立存储区创建文件和目录。首先,检索一个按用户、域和程序集隔离的存储区并放入 isoStore 变量。CreateDirectory 方法用于设置几个不同的目录,IsolatedStorageFileStream 方法在这些目录中创建一些文件。然后,代码依次通过 GetAllDirectories 方法的结果。该方法使用 GetDirectoryNames 来查找当前目录中的所有目录名。这些名称存储在数组中,然后 GetAllDirectories 调用其本身,传入它所找到的每个目录。结果是在数组中返回的所有目录名。然后,代码调用 GetAllFiles 方法。该方法调用 GetAllDirectories 以查找所有目录的名称,然后它检查每个目录以查找使用 GetFileNames 方法的文件。结果返回到数组中用于显示。

 [C#]
using System;
using System.IO;
using System.IO.IsolatedStorage;
using System.Collections;
 
public class FindingExistingFilesAndDirectories{
 
   // Retrieves an array of all directories in the store, and 
   // displays the results.
 
   public static void Main(){
 
      // This part of the code sets up a few directories and files in the
      // store.
      IsolatedStorageFile isoStore = IsolatedStorageFile.GetStore(IsolatedStorageScope.User | IsolatedStorageScope.Assembly, null, null);
      isoStore.CreateDirectory("TopLevelDirectory");
      isoStore.CreateDirectory("TopLevelDirectory/SecondLevel");
      isoStore.CreateDirectory("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory");
      new IsolatedStorageFileStream("InTheRoot.txt", FileMode.Create, isoStore);
      new IsolatedStorageFileStream("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory/HereIAm.txt", FileMode.Create, isoStore);
      // End of setup.
 
      Console.WriteLine('/r');
      Console.WriteLine("Here is a list of all directories in this isolated store:");
 
      foreach(string directory in GetAllDirectories("*", isoStore)){
         Console.WriteLine(directory);
      }
      Console.WriteLine('/r');
 
      // Retrieve all the files in the directory by calling the GetFiles 
      // method.
 
      Console.WriteLine("Here is a list of all the files in this isolated store:");
      foreach(string file in GetAllFiles("*", isoStore)){
         Console.WriteLine(file);
      }  
 
   }// End of Main.
  
   // Method to retrieve all directories, recursively, within a store.
 
   public static string[] GetAllDirectories(string pattern, IsolatedStorageFile storeFile){
 
      // Get the root of the search string.
 
      string root = Path.GetDirectoryName(pattern);
 
      if (root != "") root += "/";
 
      // Retrieve directories.
 
      string[] directories;
 
      directories = storeFile.GetDirectoryNames(pattern);
 
      ArrayList directoryList = new ArrayList(directories);
 
      // Retrieve subdirectories of matches.
 
      for (int i = 0, max = directories.Length; i < max; i++){
         string directory = directoryList[i] + "/";
         string[] more = GetAllDirectories (root + directory + "*", storeFile);
 
         // For each subdirectory found, add in the base path.
 
         for (int j = 0; j < more.Length; j++)
            more[j] = directory + more[j];
 
         // Insert the subdirectories into the list and 
         // update the counter and upper bound.
 
         directoryList.InsertRange(i+1, more);
         i += more.Length;
         max += more.Length;
      }
 
      return (string[])directoryList.ToArray(Type.GetType("System.String"));
   }
 
   public static string[] GetAllFiles(string pattern, IsolatedStorageFile storeFile){
 
      // Get the root and file portions of the search string.
 
      string fileString = Path.GetFileName(pattern);
 
      string[] files;
      files = storeFile.GetFileNames(pattern);
 
      ArrayList fileList = new ArrayList(files);
 
      // Loop through the subdirectories, collect matches, 
      // and make separators consistent.
 
      foreach(string directory in GetAllDirectories( "*", storeFile))
         foreach(string file in storeFile.GetFileNames(directory + "/" + fileString))
            fileList.Add((directory + "/" + file));
 
      return (string[])fileList.ToArray(Type.GetType("System.String"));
         
   }// End of GetFiles.
 
}

读取和写入文件

使用 IsolatedStorageFileStream 类,有多种方法可以打开存储区中的文件。一旦获得了 IsolatedStorageFileStream 之后,可使用它来获取 StreamReader 或 StreamWriter。使用 StreamReaderStreamWriter,您可以像对任何其他文件一样读取和写入存储区中的文件。

ReadingAndWritingToFiles 示例

下面的代码示例获得独立存储区,创建一个名为 TestStore.txt 的文件并将“Hello Isolated Storage”写入文件。然后,代码读取该文件并将结果输出到控制台。

 [C#]
using System;
using System.IO;
using System.IO.IsolatedStorage;
 
public class ReadingAndWritingToFiles{
 
   public static int Main(){
 
      // Get an isolated store for this assembly and put it into an
      // IsolatedStoreFile object.
 
      IsolatedStorageFile isoStore =  IsolatedStorageFile.GetStore(IsolatedStorageScope.User | IsolatedStorageScope.Assembly, null, null);
 
      // This code checks to see if the file already exists.
 
      string[] fileNames = isoStore.GetFileNames("TestStore.txt");
      foreach (string file in fileNames){
         if(file == "TestStore.txt"){
 
            Console.WriteLine("The file already exists!");
            Console.WriteLine("Type /"StoreAdm /REMOVE/" at the command line to delete all Isolated Storage for this user.");
 
            // Exit the program.
 
            return 0;
         }
      }
 
      writeToFile(isoStore);
 
      Console.WriteLine("The file /"TestStore.txt/" contains:");
      // Call the readFromFile and write the returned string to the
      //console.
 
      Console.WriteLine(readFromFile(isoStore));
 
      // Exit the program.
 
      return 0;
 
   }// End of main.
 
 
   // This method writes "Hello Isolated Storage" to the file.
 
   private static void writeToFile(IsolatedStorageFile isoStore){
 
      // Declare a new StreamWriter.
 
      StreamWriter writer = null;
 
      // Assign the writer to the store and the file TestStore.
 
      writer = new StreamWriter(new IsolatedStorageFileStream("TestStore.txt", FileMode.CreateNew,isoStore));
 
      // Have the writer write "Hello Isolated Storage" to the store.
 
      writer.WriteLine("Hello Isolated Storage");
 
      writer.Close();
      
      Console.WriteLine("You have written to the file.");
 
   }// End of writeToFile.
 
 
   // This method reads the first line in the "TestStore.txt" file.
 
   public static String readFromFile(IsolatedStorageFile isoStore){
 
      // This code opens the TestStore.txt file and reads the string.
 
      StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(new IsolatedStorageFileStream("TestStore.txt", FileMode.Open,isoStore));
 
      // Read a line from the file and add it to sb.
 
      String sb = reader.ReadLine();
 
      // Close the reader.
 
      reader.Close();
 
      // Return the string.
 
      return sb.ToString();
 
   }// End of readFromFile.
}

删除文件和目录

您可以删除独立存储文件中的目录和文件。请记住,在存储区中,文件名和目录名是与操作系统相关的(在 Microsoft Windows 系统中通常不区分大小写),并且是根据虚文件系统的根目录具体而定的。

IsolatedStoreFile 类提供了两种删除目录和文件的实例方法:DeleteDirectory 和 DeleteFile。如果尝试删除并不存在的文件和目录,则会引发 IsolatedStorageFileException。如果名称中包含有通配符,则 DeleteDirectory 会引发 IsolatedStorageFileException,而 DeleteFile 将引发 ArgumentException。

如果目录中包含任何文件或子目录,DeleteDirectory 将会失败。在 DeletingFilesAndDirectories 示例的一部分中定义了一个方法,该方法删除目录中的所有内容,然后删除目录本身。同样,您可以自己定义一个接受通配符的 DeleteFiles 方法,该方法可以这样来实现:使用 GetFileNames 方法获取所有匹配文件的列表,然后依次删除每个文件。

DeletingFilesAndDirectories 示例

下面的代码示例先创建若干个目录和文件,然后将它们删除。

 [C#]
using System;
using System.IO.IsolatedStorage;
using System.IO;
 
public class DeletingFilesDirectories{
 
   public static void Main(){
 
      // Get a new isolated store for this user domain and assembly.
      // Put the store into an isolatedStorageFile object.
 
      IsolatedStorageFile isoStore =  IsolatedStorageFile.GetStore(IsolatedStorageScope.User | IsolatedStorageScope.Domain | IsolatedStorageScope.Assembly, null, null);
    
      Console.WriteLine("Creating Directories:");
 
      // This code creates several different directories.
 
      isoStore.CreateDirectory("TopLevelDirectory");
      Console.WriteLine("TopLevelDirectory");
      isoStore.CreateDirectory("TopLevelDirectory/SecondLevel");
      Console.WriteLine("TopLevelDirectory/SecondLevel");
 
      // This code creates two new directories, one inside the other.
 
      isoStore.CreateDirectory("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory");
      Console.WriteLine("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory");
      Console.WriteLine();
 
      // This code creates a few files and places them in the directories.
 
      Console.WriteLine("Creating Files:");
 
      // This file is placed in the root.
 
      IsolatedStorageFileStream isoStream1 = new IsolatedStorageFileStream("InTheRoot.txt", FileMode.Create, isoStore);
      Console.WriteLine("InTheRoot.txt");
  
      isoStream1.Close();
 
      // This file is placed in the InsideDirectory.
 
      IsolatedStorageFileStream isoStream2 = new IsolatedStorageFileStream("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory/HereIAm.txt", FileMode.Create, isoStore);
      Console.WriteLine("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory/HereIAm.txt");
      Console.WriteLine();
 
      isoStream2.Close();
 
      Console.WriteLine("Deleting File:");
 
      // This code deletes the HereIAm.txt file.
      isoStore.DeleteFile("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory/HereIAm.txt");
      Console.WriteLine("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory/HereIAm.txt"); 
      Console.WriteLine();
 
      Console.WriteLine("Deleting Directory:");
 
      // This code deletes the InsideDirectory.
 
      isoStore.DeleteDirectory("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory/");
      Console.WriteLine("AnotherTopLevelDirectory/InsideDirectory/");
      Console.WriteLine();
 
   }// End of main.
 
}

总结

    上面是VS.NET中.NET中IO的基本概念、示例代码以及访问文件系统的基础方法和流程,大家可以多多实践。有任何建议请MAIL我 paulni@citiz.net

 

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