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一些基础:VC编程经验和错误

发表于2004/10/28 15:51:00  1006人阅读

文件操作

1、UNICODE文件开头标识:0Xfeff;

    #define SETUNICODE(pFile) (fputwc(0xfeff, pFile))

 

2、TEXT("")功能符能转换代码值,而不仅仅表示宽字符,例如:

    TCHAR tzBuf[126];

    CHAR czBuf[126];

    memset(tzBuf, 0, 126*sizeof(TCHAR));

    memset(czBuf, 0, 126);

    wsprintf(tzBuf, TEXT("阿三asga"));

    sprintf(czBuf, "阿三asga");

 

    或者:

    TCHAR tzBuf[126] = TEXT("阿三asga");

    CHAR czBuf[126] = "阿三asga";

 

    结论:

    地址tzBuf:963f,4e09,0061,0073,0067,0061,0000

    地址czBuf:b0,a2,c8,fd,61,73,67,61,00

 

3、部分设备自带文本编辑器无法识别中文字符,无论是ANSI或者UNICODE格式;

 

4、读取和写入UNICODE文本时,需要使用"b"修饰符,如"rb"、"wb",不受fgets和fgetws的影响;

 

5、输出格式控制符说明:

    Single-byte character with printf functions  h c or C

    Single-byte character with wprintf functions h c or C

 

    Wide character with printf functions l c or C

    Wide character with wprintf functions l c or C

 

    Single-byte – character string with printf functions h s or S

    Single-byte – character string with wprintf functions h s or S

 

    Wide-character string with printf functions l s or S

    Wide-character string with wprintf functions l s or S

 

易发生错误一:

sscanf(buf, TEXT(“%d”), var);           //遗忘”&”

sscanf(buf, TEXT(“%d”), &var);

易发生错误二:

Template<class T> class mytem操作时,如果在头文件中仅仅声明class myclass,那么如下操作导致:

Mytem<myclass> m_Mytem;

可能出错。已遇上的错误:myclass中使用VirtualAlloc分配内存时,sizeof(myclass)的值不确定,导致分配内存失败。

关于Combobox的使用:

Combobox有Dropdown和Droplist两种Type,对于Droplist来说,OnSelchange()中使用UpdateData()可以获得用户选择的项,而对于Dropdown来说,OnSelchange()中必须先使用m_CtrlCombo.SetSel(m_CtrlCombo.GetSel()),然后使用UpdateData()才可以获取用户选择的项。

要善于使用SHE处理问题,如记录文件读取:

FILE* pFile = fopen(strFileName, “r”);

do

{

    __try

{

        fgets(czBuf, LINENUM, pFile);

        //do your things here…

 

    }

    __except(EXCEPTION_EXECUTE_HANDLER)

{

    //continue or break?

}

}while(!feof(pFile));

fclose(pFile);

 

使用位图缓冲区绘图:

//定义位图:

CBitmap m_Bitmap;

 

//装载位图或者初始化位图:

//装载位图:

m_Bitmap.LoadBitmap(IDB_BITMAP1);

/****初始化位图**********

CClientDC ClientDC(this);

m_Bitmap.CreateCompatibleBitmap(&ClientDC, 32, 32);

//**********************/

 

//初始化内存设备句柄:

CClientDC ClientDC(this);   //显示设备句柄

CDC MemDC;

MemDC.CreateCompatibleDC(&ClientDC);

 

//位图装入内存设备描述表:

MemDC.SelectObject(&m_Bitmap);

 

//使用内存设备操作位图:

MemDC.PatBlt(0, 0, 32, 32, WHITENESS);//刷墙

MemDC.Ellipse(2, 2, 30, 30);//画圆

 

//显示位图:OnDraw(CDC* pDC,…)

BITMAP BM;

m_Bitmap.GetObject(sizeof(BM), &BM);

pDC->BitBlt(

    0,

    0,

    BM.bmWidth,

    BM.bmHeight,

    &MemDC,

    0,

    0,

    SRCCOPY);

//其他位图操作函数:

//PatBlt(int x, int y, int nWidth, int nHeight, DWORD dwRop);

//StretchBlt(int x, int y, int nWidth, int nHeight, CDC* pSreDC, int xSrc, int ySrc, int nSrcWidth, int nSrcHeight, DWORD dwRop);

 

读取CF卡ID号:

#include <winioctl.h>

 

typedef struct _STORAGE_IDENTIFICATION {

DWORD dwSize;

DWORD dwFlags;

DWORD dwManufactureIDOffset;

DWORD dwSerialNumOffset;

} STORAGE_IDENTIFICATION, *PSTORAGE_IDENTIFICATION;

 

 

         TCHAR tzCFCardID[22];

         HANDLE hCard = CreateFile(TEXT("DSK1:"),           //设备标识DISK1由查询注册表获得

                   GENERIC_READ|GENERIC_WRITE,

                   0,

                   NULL,

                   OPEN_EXISTING,

                   0,

                   NULL);

 

         if(hCard)

         {

                   int i = 0;

                   PSTORAGE_IDENTIFICATION pStoreInfo;

                   pStoreInfo=(STORAGE_IDENTIFICATION *)LocalAlloc(LMEM_ZEROINIT,3000);

 

                   DWORD dwGetBytes;

                   if (DeviceIoControl(hCard,

                            CTL_CODE(0x0007, 0x0709, METHOD_BUFFERED, FILE_ANY_ACCESS),                 // 关键行:指定IOCTL

                            NULL,

                            0,

                            (LPVOID)pStoreInfo,

                            3000,

                            &dwGetBytes,

                            NULL)

                            !=FALSE)

                   {

                            if(dwGetBytes > 0)

                            {

                                     i = 0;

                                     int j = 0;

                                     if(pStoreInfo->dwSerialNumOffset < dwGetBytes)

                                     {

                                               BYTE* SerialNo=(((BYTE *)pStoreInfo)+pStoreInfo->dwSerialNumOffset);

                                               while (SerialNo[i]!=0 && i<(int)(dwGetBytes-pStoreInfo->dwSerialNumOffset) && i<22)

                                               {

                                                        if(SerialNo[i] < '0' || SerialNo[i] > 'z')

                                                        {

                                                                 j++;

                                                        }

                                                        else

                                                        {

                                                                 tzCFCardID[i - j]=(TCHAR)SerialNo[i];

                                                        }

                                                        i++;

                                               }

                                     }

                                     tzCFCardID[i - j]=0;

                            }

                   }

                   else

                   {

                            wsprintf(tzError, TEXT("查询储存卡ID失败,错误号%lu"), GetLastError());

                            AfxMessageBox(tzError);

                            LocalFree(pStoreInfo);

                            CloseHandle(hCard);

                            return FALSE;

                   }

                   LocalFree(pStoreInfo);

                   CloseHandle(hCard);

 

//说明:有些卡是没有卡号的,当初折磨了我很久:)

 

 

关键代码段运行时间测试

__int64 FileTimeToQuadWord(PFILETIME pft)

{

         return (Int64ShllMod32(pft->dwHighDateTime, 32) | pft->dwLowDateTime);

}

 

union LTIME

{

         int nTime[2];

         __int64 lTime;

};

 

FILETIME ftKernelTimeStart, ftKernelTimeEnd;

FILETIME ftUserTimeStart, ftUserTimeEnd;

FILETIME ftDummy;

__int64 qwKernelTimeElapsed, qwUserTimeElapsed,

         qwTotalTimeElapsed;

 

int nTimes;

LTIME KernelTime, UserTime, TotalTime;

 

void TimeStart()

{

         GetThreadTimes(GetCurrentThread(), &ftDummy, &ftDummy,

                   &ftKernelTimeStart, &ftUserTimeStart);

}

 

void TimeEnd()

{

         GetThreadTimes(GetCurrentThread(), &ftDummy, &ftDummy,

                   &ftKernelTimeEnd, &ftUserTimeEnd);

         qwKernelTimeElapsed = FileTimeToQuadWord(&ftKernelTimeEnd) -

                   FileTimeToQuadWord(&ftKernelTimeStart);

 

         qwUserTimeElapsed = FileTimeToQuadWord(&ftUserTimeEnd) -

                   FileTimeToQuadWord(&ftUserTimeStart);

/*

         LARGE_INTEGER liStart, liEnd;

         liStart.HighPart = ftUserTimeStart.dwHighDateTime;

         liStart.LowPart = ftUserTimeStart.dwLowDateTime;

         liEnd.HighPart = ftUserTimeEnd.dwHighDateTime;

         liEnd.LowPart = ftUserTimeEnd.dwLowDateTime;

         qwUserTimeElapsed = liEnd.QuadPart - liStart.QuadPart;

//*/

         qwTotalTimeElapsed = qwKernelTimeElapsed + qwUserTimeElapsed;

 

         nTimes++;

         KernelTime.lTime = KernelTime.lTime + (qwKernelTimeElapsed - KernelTime.lTime)/nTimes;

         UserTime.lTime = UserTime.lTime + (qwUserTimeElapsed - UserTime.lTime)/nTimes;

         TotalTime.lTime = TotalTime.lTime + (qwTotalTimeElapsed - TotalTime.lTime)/nTimes;

}

 

void TimeReport()

{

         FILE* pFile = fopen("TestTime.txt", "a+");

 

         fprintf(pFile, "Test Description :/n");

        

         fprintf(pFile, "Total Times:%d/n", nTimes);

 

         fprintf(pFile, "Kernel Time Elapsed:%d, %d/n", KernelTime.nTime[1], KernelTime.nTime[0]);

 

         fprintf(pFile, "User    Time Elapsed:%d, %d/n", UserTime.nTime[1], UserTime.nTime[0]);

 

         fprintf(pFile, "Total   Time Elapsed:%d, %d/n/n", TotalTime.nTime[1], TotalTime.nTime[0]);

 

         fclose(pFile);

}

 

void InitTestTime()

{

         nTimes = 0;

         KernelTime.lTime = 0;

         UserTime.lTime = 0;

         TotalTime.lTime = 0;

 

}

 

 

代码替换链接

#pragma comment( lib, "opengl32.lib" )                                                              // 链接时使用OpenGL32.lib

 

 

列表操作

图标设置

         m_AttTypeImageList.Create(IDB_ATTRIBUTETYPE, 16, 0, FALSE);

         m_CtrlListPos.SetImageList(&m_AttTypeImageList, LVSIL_SMALL);

 

专栏操作

         LV_COLUMN lvc;

         lvc.mask = (LVCF_FMT|LVCF_WIDTH|LVCF_TEXT|LVCF_SUBITEM);

         lvc.fmt = LVCFMT_LEFT;

         TCHAR* Caption[6] = {TEXT("点名"),

                                                        TEXT("工程X"), TEXT("工程Y"),

                                                        TEXT("工程H"), TEXT("天线高"),

                                                        TEXT("描述")};

         for(int i = 0; i<6; i++)

         {

                   lvc.pszText = Caption[i];

                   if(i == 0) lvc.cx = 60;

                   else lvc.cx = 100;

                   lvc.iSubItem = i;

                   m_CtrlListPos.InsertColumn(i, &lvc);

         }

 

记录操作

         LV_ITEM lvi;

         lvi.mask = LVIF_TEXT|LVIF_IMAGE;

         lvi.pszText = pDPos->m_tzName;

         lvi.iItem = i;

         lvi.iSubItem = 0;

         if()

                   lvi.iImage = 0;

         else

                   lvi.iImage = 1;

         m_CtrlListPos.SetItem(&lvi);

        

         TCHAR cc[20];

         _stprintf(cc, TEXT("%.3lf"), pDPos->m_x);

         m_CtrlListPos.SetItemText(lvi.iItem, 1, cc);        

         _stprintf(cc, TEXT("%.3lf"), pDPos->m_y);

         m_CtrlListPos.SetItemText(i, 2, cc);

         _stprintf(cc, TEXT("%.3lf"), pDPos->m_z);

 

         m_CtrlListPos.SetItemText(i, 3, cc);

         _stprintf(cc, TEXT("%.3lf"), pDPos->m_dAntH);

         m_CtrlListPos.SetItemText(i, 4, cc);

         m_CtrlListPos.SetItemText(i, 5, pDPos->m_tzAttribute);

 

 

 

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