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使用C#控制远程计算机的服务

发表于2004/11/3 1:55:00  424人阅读

          在.net中提供了一些类来显示和控制Windows系统上的服务,并可以实现对远程计算机服务服务的访问,如System.ServiceProcess命名空间下面的ServiceController 类,System.Management下面的一些WMI操作的类。虽然用ServiceController可以很方便的实现对服务的控制,而且很直观、简洁和容易理解。但是我认为他的功能同通过WMI来操作服务相比,那可能就有些单一了,并且对多个服务的操作可能就比较麻烦,也无法列出系统中的所有服务的具体数据。这里要讲的就是如何使用System.Management组件来操作远程和本地计算机上的服务。

        WMI作为Windows 2000操作系统的一部分提供了可伸缩的,可扩展的管理架构.公共信息模型(CIM)是由分布式管理任务标准协会(DMTF)设计的一种可扩展的、面向对象的架构,用于管理系统、网络、应用程序、数据库和设备。Windows管理规范也称作CIM for Windows,提供了统一的访问管理信息的方式。如果需要获取详细的WMI信息请读者查阅MSDN。System.Management组件提供对大量管理信息和管理事件集合的访问,这些信息和事件是与根据 Windows 管理规范 (WMI) 结构对系统、设备和应用程序设置检测点有关的。

        但是上面并不是我们最关心的,下面才是我们需要谈的话题。毫无疑问,我们要引用System.Management.Dll程序集,并要使用System.Management命名空间下的类,如ManagementClass,ManagementObject等。下面用一个名为Win32ServiceManager的类把服务的一些相关操作包装了一下,代码如下:
using System;
using System.Management;
namespace ZZ.Wmi
{
     public class Win32ServiceManager
     {
         private string strPath;
         private ManagementClass managementClass;
         public Win32ServiceManager():this(".",null,null)
         {
         }
         public Win32ServiceManager(string host,string userName,string password)
         {
              this.strPath = "////"+host+"//root//cimv2:Win32_Service";
              this.managementClass = new ManagementClass(strPath);
               if(userName!=null&&userName.Length>0)
              {
                   ConnectionOptions connectionOptions = new ConnectionOptions();
                   connectionOptions.Username = userName;
                   connectionOptions.Password = password;
                   ManagementScope managementScope = new ManagementScope( "////" +host+ "//root//cimv2",connectionOptions) ;
                   this.managementClass.Scope = managementScope;
              }
         } 

         // 验证是否能连接到远程计算机
         public static bool RemoteConnectValidate(string host,string userName,string password)
         {
              ConnectionOptions connectionOptions = new ConnectionOptions();
              connectionOptions.Username = userName;
              connectionOptions.Password = password;
              ManagementScope managementScope = new ManagementScope( "////" +host+ "//root//cimv2",connectionOptions) ;
              try
              {
                   managementScope.Connect();
              }
              catch
              {
              }
              return managementScope.IsConnected;
         }


         // 获取指定服务属性的值
         public object GetServiceValue(string serviceName,string propertyName)
         {
              ManagementObject mo = this.managementClass.CreateInstance();
              mo.Path = new ManagementPath(this.strPath+".Name=/""+serviceName+"/"");
              return mo[propertyName];
         }


         // 获取所连接的计算机的所有服务数据
         public string [,] GetServiceList()
         {
              string [,] services = new string [this.managementClass.GetInstances().Count,4];
              int i = 0;
              foreach(ManagementObject mo in this.managementClass.GetInstances())
              {
                   services[i,0] = (string)mo["Name"];
                   services[i,1] = (string)mo["DisplayName"];
                   services[i,2] = (string)mo["State"];
                   services[i,3] = (string)mo["StartMode"];
                   i++;
              }
              return services;
         }


         // 获取所连接的计算机的指定服务数据
         public string [,] GetServiceList(string serverName)
         {
              return GetServiceList(new string []{serverName});
         }


         // 获取所连接的计算机的的指定服务数据
         public string [,] GetServiceList(string [] serverNames)
         {
              string [,] services = new string [serverNames.Length,4];
              ManagementObject mo = this.managementClass.CreateInstance();
              for(int i = 0;i<serverNames.Length;i++)
              {
                   mo.Path = new ManagementPath(this.strPath+".Name=/""+serverNames[i]+"/"");
                   services[i,0] = (string)mo["Name"];
                   services[i,1] = (string)mo["DisplayName"];
                   services[i,2] = (string)mo["State"];
                   services[i,3] = (string)mo["StartMode"];
              }
              return services;
         }


         // 停止指定的服务
         public string StartService(string serviceName)
         {
              string strRst = null;
              ManagementObject mo = this.managementClass.CreateInstance();
              mo.Path = new ManagementPath(this.strPath+".Name=/""+serviceName+"/"");
              try
              {
                   if((string)mo["State"]=="Stopped")//!(bool)mo["AcceptStop"]
                       mo.InvokeMethod("StartService",null);
              }
              catch(ManagementException e)
              {
                   strRst =e.Message;
              }
              return strRst;
         }


         // 暂停指定的服务
         public string PauseService(string serviceName)
         {
              string strRst = null;
              ManagementObject mo = this.managementClass.CreateInstance();
              mo.Path = new ManagementPath(this.strPath+".Name=/""+serviceName+"/"");
              try
              {
                   //判断是否可以暂停
                   if((bool)mo["acceptPause"]&&(string)mo["State"]=="Running")
                       mo.InvokeMethod("PauseService",null);
              }
              catch(ManagementException e)
              {
                   strRst =e.Message;
              }
              return strRst;
         }


         // 恢复指定的服务
         public string ResumeService(string serviceName)
         {
              string strRst = null;
              ManagementObject mo = this.managementClass.CreateInstance();
              mo.Path = new ManagementPath(this.strPath+".Name=/""+serviceName+"/"");
              try
              {
                   //判断是否可以恢复
                   if((bool)mo["acceptPause"]&&(string)mo["State"]=="Paused")
                       mo.InvokeMethod("ResumeService",null);
              }
              catch(ManagementException e)
              {
                   strRst =e.Message;
              }
              return strRst;
         }


         // 停止指定的服务
         public string StopService(string serviceName)
         {
              string strRst = null;
              ManagementObject mo = this.managementClass.CreateInstance();
              mo.Path = new ManagementPath(this.strPath+".Name=/""+serviceName+"/"");
              try
              {
                   //判断是否可以停止
                   if((bool)mo["AcceptStop"])//(string)mo["State"]=="Running"
                       mo.InvokeMethod("StopService",null);
              }
              catch(ManagementException e)
              {
                   strRst =e.Message;
              }
              return strRst;
         }
    }
}
在Win32ServiceManager中通过RemoteConnectValidate静态方法来测试连接成功与否;另外提供了GetServiceValue方法和GetServiceList方法以及它的重载来获取服务信息;后面的四个方法就是对服务的状态控制了。
     下面建立一个简单的窗口来使用它。
大致的界面如下:

通过vs.net 2003可以很快做出上面的窗体,下面列出了一些增加的代码:


using ZZ.Wmi;
namespace ZZForm
{
     public class Form1 : System.Windows.Forms.Form
     {
         //……
         private Win32ServiceManager serviceManager;
         public Form1()
         {
              InitializeComponent();
              this.serviceManager = null;
         }
         //……
         [STAThread]
         static void Main()
         {
              Application.Run(new Form1());
         }
         //修改服务状态
         private void buttonChangeState_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
         {
              switch(((Button)sender).Text)
              {
                   case "启动":
                       string startRst = this.serviceManager.StartService(this.listViewService.SelectedItems[0].SubItems[0].Text);
                       if(startRst==null)
                            MessageBox.Show("操作成功,请点击获取刷新按钮刷新结果!");
                       else
                            MessageBox.Show(startRst);
                       break;
                   case "暂停":
                       string startPause = this.serviceManager.PauseService(this.listViewService.SelectedItems[0].SubItems[0].Text);
                       if(startPause==null)
                            MessageBox.Show("操作成功,请点击获取刷新按钮刷新结果!");
                       else
                            MessageBox.Show(startPause);
                       break;
                   case "继续":
                       string startResume = this.serviceManager.ResumeService(this.listViewService.SelectedItems[0].SubItems[0].Text);
                       if(startResume==null)
                            MessageBox.Show("操作成功,请点击获取刷新按钮刷新结果!");
                       else
                            MessageBox.Show(startResume);
                       break;
                   case "停止":
                       string startStop = this.serviceManager.StopService(this.listViewService.SelectedItems[0].SubItems[0].Text);
                       if(startStop==null)
                            MessageBox.Show("操作成功,请点击获取刷新按钮刷新结果!");
                       else
                            MessageBox.Show(startStop);
                       break;
              }
         }

         //获取和刷新数据
         private void buttonLoadRefresh_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
         {
              if(this.textBoxHost.Text.Trim().Length>0)
              {
                   if(this.textBoxHost.Text.Trim()==".")
                   {
                       this.serviceManager = new Win32ServiceManager();
                   }
                   else
                   {
                        if(Win32ServiceManager.RemoteConnectValidate(this.textBoxHost.Text.Trim(),this.textBoxName.Text.Trim(),this.textBoxPassword.Text.Trim()))
                       {
                            this.serviceManager = new Win32ServiceManager(this.textBoxHost.Text.Trim(),this.textBoxName.Text.Trim(),this.textBoxPassword.Text.Trim());
                       }
                       else
                       {
                            MessageBox.Show("连接到远程计算机验证错误.");
                            return;
                       }
                   }
                   string [,] services = serviceManager.GetServiceList();
                   this.listViewService.BeginUpdate();
                   this.listViewService.Items.Clear();
                   for(int i=0;i<services.GetLength(0);i++)
                   {
                       ListViewItem item = new ListViewItem(new string[]{services[i,0],services[i,1],services[i,2],services[i,3]});
                       this.listViewService.Items.Add(item);
                   }
                   this.listViewService.EndUpdate();
              }
              else
                   MessageBox.Show("请输入计算机名或IP地址");
         }
    }
}
     说明,其实一个服务的属性和方法除了上面这几个还有很多,我们可以通过实例化ManagementClass类,使用它的Properties属性和Methods属性列出所有的属性和方法。上面的Win32ServiceManager中生成的每个服务实例都是ManagementObejct类型的,其实还有一种强类型的类,可以通过编程和工具来生成。
     总结,通过引用System.Management命名空间,上面简单的实现了通过访问/root/cimv2:Win32_Service名称空间对服务进行显示和操作。此外,我们还可以通过访问其他名称空间来访问计算机的一些硬件信息,软件信息以及网络等,有兴趣的读者可以研究一下。

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