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《编程之道》

发表于2001/1/12 12:52:00  886人阅读

《编程之道》(小赵译版)
蓝森林 http://www.lslnet.com 2001年1月1日 21:39

 

The Tao Of Programming —— 编程之道
Translated By Geoffrey James


[小赵]翻译整理

说明:
  本文是<<编程之道>> <<编程之禅>><<计算机时代的寓言>>其中的一册, 由小赵翻译整理, 另外, 这三册书的完整电子文档由小赵根据市面上的<< 编程之道>>一书(包括了上面的三卷)录入整理, 随后将一起刊登(参见《编程之道》全译文)。

Table of Contents 目录

Book 1 -- The Silent Void
Book 2 -- The Ancient Masters
Book 3 -- Design
Book 4 -- Coding
Book 5 -- Maintenance
Book 6 -- Management
Book 7 -- Corporate Wisdom
Book 8 -- Hardware and Software
Book 9 -- Epilogue


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The Silent Void
Book One
Thus spake the master programmer:
编程大师如是说:


"When you have learned to snatch the error code from the trap frame, it will be time for you to leave."
“当你从我手中夺走水晶球时,就是你离开的时候了。”
1.1
Something mysterious is formed, born in the silent void. Waiting alone and unmoving, it is at once still and yet in constant motion. It is the source of all programs. I do not know its name, so I will call it the Tao of Programming.
寂静的虚空里诞生了神秘的东西,这种东西恒久存在永不消失,它是所有程序的根源所在,我不知道怎么形容它,姑且称它为编程之道。
If the Tao is great, then the operating system is great. If the operating system is great, then the compiler is great. If the compiler is greater, then the applications is great. The user is pleased and there is harmony in the world.
如果道是完美的,那么操作系统就是完美的,如果操作系统是完美的,那么编译嚣就是完美的,如果编译嚣是完美的,那么应用程序就是完美的,所以用户心满意足,整个世界因此和谐。

The Tao of Programming flows far away and returns on the wind of morning.
编程之道去如黄鹤来如晨风。

1.2
The Tao gave birth to machine language. Machine language gave birth to the assembler.
道生机器语言,机器语言生汇编嚣。
The assembler gave birth to the compiler. Now there are ten thousand languages.
汇编器生编译器,最后产生上万种高级语言。

Each language has its purpose, however humble. Each language expresses the Yin and Yang of software. Each language has its place within the Tao.
不论多么的微不足道,每种语言都有它自己的目的,每种语言都表达了软件的阴阳两极。每种语言都各得其道。

But do not program in COBOL if you can avoid it.
但是尽量不要用COBOL语言。

1.3
In the beginning was the Tao. The Tao gave birth to Space and Time. Therefore, Space and Time are the Yin and Yang of programming.
道之初,带来了空间和时间,所以,空间和时间是编程的阴阳两极。
Programmers that do not comprehend the Tao are always running out of time and space for their programs. Programmers that comprehend the Tao always have enough time and space to accomplish their goals.
不懂编程之道的程序员常常把空间和时间消耗殆尽,得道的程序员则总是有足够的空间和时间去完成编程任务。

How could it be otherwise?
否则会是什么样呢?

1.4
The wise programmer is told about the Tao and follows it. The average programmer is told about the Tao and searches for it. The foolish programmer is told about the Tao and laughs at it.
上士闻道,从而行之。中士闻道,谨而寻之。下士闻道,大笑之。
If it were not for laughter, there would be no Tao.
大笑不足为道。

The highest sounds are the hardest to hear. Going forward is a way to retreat. Greater talent shows itself late in life. Even a perfect program still has bugs.
希音不闻,进即是退,大嚣晚成。任何程序都有漏洞。


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The Ancient Masters
Book Two
Thus spake the master programmer:
编程大师如是说:


"After three days without programming, life becomes meaningless."
三日不编程,食肉无味。

2.1
The programmers of old were mysterious and profound. We cannot fathom their thoughts, so all we do is describe their appearance.
远古时代的编程大师们高深莫测,我们不能揣测他们的所思所想,只能描述外表所见。
Aware, like a fox crossing the water. Alert, like a general on the battlefield. Kind, like a hostess greeting her guests. Simple, like uncarved blocks of wood. Opaque, like black pools in darkened caves.
他达明,如狐狸过水;机警,如战场上的将军;和善,如主妇款待客人;简单,呆若木鸡;混沌,如深渊之水。

Who can tell the secrets of their hearts and minds?
谁能道尽他们的所有?

The answer exists only in the Tao.
答案仅存于道。

2.2
Grand Master Turing once dreamed that he was a machine. When he awoke he exclaimed:
超级大师图灵曾梦见自己是一台机器,醒后他这样回忆:

"I don't know whether I am Turing dreaming that I am a machine, or a machine dreaming that I am Turing!"

“我不知道是图灵梦见自己变成机器还是机器梦见自己变成图灵。”
2.3
A programmer from a very large computer company went to a software conference and then returned to report to his manager, saying: "What sort of programmers work for other companies? They behaved badly and were unconcerned with appearances. Their hair was long and unkempt and their clothes were wrinkled and old. They crashed out hospitality suites and they made rude noises during my presentation."
一个大公司的程序员参加一个软件会议后向他的主管汇报:“那些别的公司的程序员都是些什么样的人呀?他们举止不雅,不修边幅,头发蓬乱,衣服破旧,根本不热情好客,还在我说话的时候乱嚷嚷。”
The manager said: "I should have never sent you to the conference. Those programmers live beyond the physical world. They consider life absurd, an accidental coincidence. They come and go without knowing limitations. Without a care, they live only for their programs. Why should they bother with social conventions?"
他的主管说:“我不应该让你参加这次会议,这些程序员生活在现实世界之外。他们认为生活是可笑的,一场意外的偶然而已。他们来去自由,无所牵挂,他们只为他们的程序生活。为什么要用世俗的烦扰去扰乱他们呢?”

"They are alive within the Tao."
“他们生活在道中”。

2.4
A novice asked the Master: "Here is a programmer that never designs, documents, or tests his programs. Yet all who know him consider him one of the best programmers in the world. Why is this?"
一个初学者问主管经理:“有一个程序员,他从来不预先设计,也不写文档,甚至不测试他的程序,但是知道他的人都认为他是世界上最伟大的程序员,为什么呢?”
The Master replies: "That programmer has mastered the Tao. He has gone beyond the need for design; he does not become angry when the system crashes, but accepts the universe without concern. He has gone beyond the need for documentation; he no longer cares if anyone else sees his code. He has gone beyond the need for testing; each of his programs are perfect within themselves, serene and elegant, their purpose self-evident. Truly, he has entered the mystery of the Tao."
经理说:“那个程序员掌握了道。他不需要预先进行设计;系统崩溃时他也从不烦燥,只是接受发生的一切而不管发生的事是好是坏 。他不需要写文档,他从不顾及有没有人看他写的代码。他也不需要进行测试;他写的每个程序都有一个完美的自我,平静而优雅,它们的目的不言自明。他已经真正掌握了道的精髓。”


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Design
Book Three
Thus spake the master programmer:
编程大师如是说:

"When program is being tested, it is too late to make design changes."

“程序被测试时再去改变它的设计已经太晚了。”
3.1
There once was a man who went to a computer trade show. Each day as he entered, the man told the guard at the door:
曾经有一个人参加计算机展览,每天他进门时都对门卫说:

"I am a great thief, renowned for my feats of shoplifting. Be forewarned, for this trade show shall not escape unplundered."
“先警告你,我是偷盗高手,我入室偷盗的本领闻名遐迩。这次展览会也再劫难逃。”
This speech disturbed the guard greatly, because there were millions of dollars of computer equipment inside, so he watched the man carefully. But the man merely wandered from booth to booth, humming quietly to himself.
警卫因此大动干戈,因为里面有价值百万的计算机设备,所以他牢牢盯紧了这个人,但是这个人只是从一个摊位逛到另一个摊位,一边平静地喃喃自语。

When the man left, the guard took him aside and searched his clothes, but nothing was to be found.
当这个人离开时,警卫搜了他的身,但是什么也没有发现。

On the next day of the trade show, the man returned and chided the guard saying: "I escaped with a vast booty yesterday, but today will be even better." So the guard watched him ever more closely, but to no avail.
展览会的第二天,这个人又对警卫说:“昨天我满载而归,但是今天我会收获更大。”所以警卫更加小心地盯紧他,但是这样做完全于事无补。

On the final day of the trade show, the guard could restrain his curiosity no longer. "Sir Thief," he said, "I am so perplexed, I cannot live in peace. Please enlighten me. What is it that you are stealing?"
展览会的最后一天,警卫再也不能忍住他的好奇心了。“小偷先生,”他说,“ 你说我惊慌不安,请告诉我,你到底偷了什么?”。

The man smiled. "I am stealing ideas," he said.
这个人笑笑说:“我在偷想法。”

3.2
There once was a master programmer who wrote unstructured programs. A novice programmer, seeking to imitate him, also began to write unstructured programs. When the novice asked the master to evaluate his progress, the master criticized him for writing unstructured programs, saying: "What is appropriate for the master is not appropriate for the novice. You must understand the Tao before transcending structure."
有一位编程大师,他写非结构化的程序,一位初学者刻意模仿他,也写非结构化的程序。当他让大师看他的进步时,大师批评了他的非结构化程序:“ 对一位编程大师合适的东西未必对一个初学者同样合适,在超越结构化之前,你必须理解编程之道。”
3.3
There was once a programmer who was attached to the court of the warlord of Wu. The warlord asked the programmer: "Which is easier to design: an accounting package or an operating system?"
###有人问一位程序员,“一个财务软件和一个操作系统哪个更容易设计?”
"An operating system," replied the programmer.
“是操作系统”,这位程序员回答说。

The warlord uttered an exclamation of disbelief. "Surely an accounting package is trivial next to the complexity of an operating system," he said.
此人大惑不解。他说:“显然一个财务软件比起操作系统来说其复杂性是微不足道的”。

"Not so," said the programmer, "when designing an accounting package, the programmer operates as a mediator between people having different ideas: how it must operate, how its reports must appear, and how it must conform to the tax laws. By contrast, an operating system is not limited my outside appearances. When designing an operating system, the programmer seeks the simplest harmony between machine and ideas. This is why an operating system is easier to design."
程序员说:“不,设计财务软件时,一个程序员必须成为持不同意见的用户与计算机的一个中介,他必须了解用户的操作习惯,报表要是什么形式,如何遵循税法。相反,一个操作系统完全与这些外部的东西无关。设计操作系统,程序员只需要达到自己的设想与机器之间的简单的和谐。这就是为什么操作系统反而比财务软件更容易设计。”

The warlord of Wu nodded and smiled. "That is all good and well, but which is easier to debug?"
这些人笑着说。“不错,但是哪一个更容易调试呢?”

The programmer made no reply.
程序员没有回答。

3.4
A manager went to the master programmer and showed him the requirements document for a new application. The manager asked the master: "How long will it take to design this system if I assign five programmers to it?"
一个项目经理带给编程大师一个项目的需求,然后问大师:“如果我给你5个程序员,要多少时间设计这个项目?”
"It will take one year," said the master promptly.
“一年”,大师说。

"But we need this system immediately or even sooner! How long will it take it I assign ten programmers to it?"
“但是我们等不了那么长时间,越快越好,如果10程序员呢?”

The master programmer frowned. "In that case, it will take two years."
大师皱了一下眉头说:“那就要花2年”。

"And what if I assign a hundred programmers to it?"
“那,100年程序员呢?”

The master programmer shrugged. "Then the design will never be completed," he said.
大师耸了耸肩说:“那这个项目就永远完不成了。”

 

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Coding
Book Four
Thus spake the master programmer:
编程大师如是说:

"A well-written program is its own heaven;
a poorly-written program is its own hell."
“写的好的程序是它自己的天堂,写的不好的程序是它自己的地狱”

4.1
A program should be light and agile, its subroutines connected like a strings of pearls. The spirit and intent of the program should be retained throughout. There should be neither too little nor too much, neither needless loops nor useless variables, neither lack of structure nor overwhelming rigidity.
一个程序应该是轻灵自由的,它的子过程就象串在一根线上的珍珠。自始至终,目标明确。增之一字节则太长,减之一字节则太短。既没有不必要的循环也没有没有被引用的变量,既不缺少结构化也不至于僵硬呆板。
A program should follow the Law of Least Astonishment. What is this law? It is simply that the program should always respond to the user in the way that astonishes him least.
一个程序应该遵循``最小惊讶原则'',什么是``最小惊讶原则''?就是说一个程序应该最小程度地引起用户的惊讶。

A program, no matter how complex, should act as a single unit. The program should be directed by the logic within rather than by outward appearances.
无论一个程序无论有多么复杂都应该是一个单一的整体。程序是被它的内部逻辑所指引而不是它的外观表现。

If the program fails in these requirements, it will be in a state of disorder and confusion. The only way to correct this is to rewrite the program.
如果一个程序不能满足所要的需求,它就会处于混乱无序的状态中。唯一的出路就是重写这个程序。

4.2
A novice asked the master: "I have a program that sometimes runs and sometimes aborts. I have followed the rules of programming, yet I am totally baffled. What is the reason for this?"
一个初学者问大师:“我的一个程序有时正常有时不正常。我已经完全遵循编程的规则,而且我完全被它弄糊涂了,到底是什么原因会导致这样呢?”
The master replied: "You are confused because you do not understand the Tao. Only a fool expects rational behavior from his fellow humans. Why do you expect it from a machine that humans have constructed? Computers simulate determinism; only the Tao is perfect.
大师说:“你困惑是因为你不了解道。只有傻瓜才会相信只要遵循别人所说就能得到想当然的结果。为什么你要从一个人类自己构造的机器中去得到想当然的结果呢?计算机只是决定论的产物;只有道才是唯一完美的。

The rules of programming are transitory; only the Tao is eternal. Therefore you must contemplate the Tao before you receive enlightenment."
任何编程的规则都只适合于特定的情况,只有道才是永恒不变的。所以在你受到指引之前要先去思考道。”

"But how will I know when I have received enlightenment?" asked the novice.
“但是我怎么知道我何时受到指引呢?”

"Your program will then run correctly," replied the master.
“当你的程序正确运行时”。大师说。

4.3
A master was explaining the nature of the Tao to one of his novices, "The Tao is embodied in all software -- regardless of how insignificant," said the master.
初学者请大师解释“道法自然”。大师说:“道存在于任何软件中--无论是多么没有意义的软件”。
"Is the Tao in a hand-held calculator?" asked the novice.
“难道也存在于手持式的计算嚣里?”,初学者问。

"It is," came the reply.
“是的,”

"Is the Tao in a video game?" continued the novice.
“也在游戏机里?”,初学者又

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