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DBMS_JOB

发表于2008/9/29 21:53:00  1613人阅读

分类: Oracle

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The DBMS_JOB package schedules and manages jobs in the job queue.



Note:


The DBMS_JOB package has been superseded by the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. In particular, if you are administering jobs to manage system load, you should consider disabling DBMS_JOB by revoking the package execution privilege for users.

For more information, see Chapter 93, "DBMS_SCHEDULER" and "Moving from DBMS_JOB to DBMS_SCHEDULER" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.



This chapter contains the following topics:







Using DBMS_JOB






Security Model


No specific system privileges are required to use DBMS_JOB. No system privileges are available to manage DBMS_JOB.
Jobs cannot be altered or deleted other than jobs owned by the user.
This is true for all users including those users granted DBA privileges.


You can execute procedures that are owned by the user or for which the user is explicitly granted EXECUTE. However, procedures for which the user is granted the execute privilege through roles cannot be executed.


Note that, once a job is started and running, there is no easy way to stop the job.





Operational Notes




Working with Real Application Clusters


DBMS_JOB supports multi-instance execution of jobs. By
default jobs can be executed on any instance, but only one single
instance will execute the job. In addition, you can force instance
binding by binding the job to a particular instance. You implement
instance binding by specifying an instance number to the instance
affinity parameter. Note, however, that in Oracle Database 10g Release
1 (10.1) instance binding is not recommended. Service affinity is
preferred. This concept is implemented in the DBMS_SCHEDULER package.


The following procedures can be used to create, alter or run jobs
with instance affinity. Note that not specifying affinity means any
instance can run the job.



DBMS_JOB.SUBMIT

To submit a job to the job queue, use the following syntax:


DBMS_JOB.SUBMIT( 
job OUT BINARY_INTEGER,
what IN VARCHAR2, NEXT_DATE IN DATE DEFAULTSYSDATE,
interval IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT 'NULL',
no_parse IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE,
instance IN BINARY_INTEGER DEFAULT ANY_INSTANCE,
force IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE);

Use the parameters instance and force to control job and instance affinity. The default value of instance is 0 (zero) to indicate that any instance can execute the job. To run the job on a certain instance, specify the instance value. Oracle displays error ORA-23319 if the instance value is a negative number or NULL.


The force parameter defaults to false. If force is TRUE, any positive integer is acceptable as the job instance. If force is FALSE, the specified instance must be running, or Oracle displays error number ORA-23428.





DBMS_JOB.INSTANCE

To assign a particular instance to execute a job, use the following syntax:


DBMS_JOB.INSTANCE(  JOB IN BINARY_INTEGER,
instance IN BINARY_INTEGER,
force IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE);

The FORCE parameter in this example defaults to FALSE.
If the instance value is 0 (zero), job affinity is altered and any
available instance can execute the job despite the value of force. If
the INSTANCE value is positive and the FORCE parameter is FALSE, job affinity is altered only if the specified instance is running, or Oracle displays error ORA-23428.


If the force parameter is TRUE, any
positive integer is acceptable as the job instance and the job affinity
is altered. Oracle displays error ORA-23319 if the instance value is negative or NULL.





DBMS_JOB.CHANGE

To alter user-definable parameters associated with a job, use the following syntax:


DBMS_JOB.CHANGE(  JOB IN BINARY_INTEGER,
what IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL,
next_date IN DATE DEFAULT NULL,
interval IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL,
instance IN BINARY_INTEGER DEFAULT NULL,
force IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE );

Two parameters, instance and force, appear in this example. The default value of instance is null indicating that job affinity will not change.


The default value of force is FALSE. Oracle displays error ORA-23428 if the specified instance is not running and error ORA-23319 if the instance number is negative.





DBMS_JOB.RUN

The force parameter for DBMS_JOB.RUN defaults to FALSE. If force is TRUE, instance affinity is irrelevant for running jobs in the foreground process. If force is FALSE, the job can run in the foreground only in the specified instance. Oracle displays error ORA-23428 if force is FALSE and the connected instance is the incorrect instance.


DBMS_JOB.RUN( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
force IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE);




Stopping a Job


Note that, once a job is started and running, there is no easy way to stop the job.








Summary of DBMS_JOB Subprograms



Table 48-1 DBMS_JOB Package Subprograms



















































Subprogram Description

BROKEN Procedure



Disables job execution



CHANGE Procedure



Alters any of the user-definable parameters associated with a job



INSTANCE Procedure



Assigns a job to be run by a instance



INTERVAL Procedure



Alters the interval between executions for a specified job



NEXT_DATE Procedure



Alters the next execution time for a specified job



REMOVE Procedure



Removes specified job from the job queue



RUN Procedure



Forces a specified job to run



SUBMIT Procedure



Submits a new job to the job queue



USER_EXPORT Procedures



Re-creates a given job for export, or re-creates a given job for export with instance affinity



WHAT Procedure



Alters the job description for a specified job









BROKEN Procedure


This procedure sets the broken flag. Broken jobs are never run.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.BROKEN ( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
broken IN BOOLEAN,
next_date IN DATE DEFAULT SYSDATE);


Parameters



Table 48-2 BROKEN Procedure Parameters























Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.



broken



Job broken: IN value is FALSE.



next_data



Date of the next refresh.







Note:


If you set job as broken while it is running, Oracle resets the job's
status to normal after the job completes. Therefore, only execute this
procedure for jobs that are not running.


Usage Notes


You must issue a COMMIT statement immediately after the statement.





CHANGE Procedure


This procedure changes any of the fields a user can set in a job.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.CHANGE ( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
what IN VARCHAR2,
next_date IN DATE,
interval IN VARCHAR2,
instance IN BINARY_INTEGER DEFAULT NULL,
force IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE);


Parameters



Table 48-3 CHANGE Procedure Parameters



































Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.



what



PL/SQL procedure to run.



next_date



Date of the next refresh.



interval



Date function; evaluated immediately before the job starts running.



instance



When a job is submitted, specifies which instance can run the job. This defaults to NULL, which indicates that instance affinity is not changed.



force



If this is FALSE, then the specified instance (to which the instance number change) must be running. Otherwise, the routine raises an exception.


If this is TRUE, then any positive integer is acceptable as the job instance.







Usage Notes



  • You must issue a COMMIT statement immediately after the statement.



  • The parameters instance and force are
    added for job queue affinity. Job queue affinity gives users the
    ability to indicate whether a particular instance or any instance can
    run a submitted job.



  • If the parameters what, next_date, or interval are NULL, then leave that value as it is.




Example


BEGIN
DBMS_JOB.CHANGE(14144, null, null, 'sysdate+3');
COMMIT;
END;




INSTANCE Procedure


This procedure changes job instance affinity.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.INSTANCE ( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
instance IN BINARY_INTEGER,
force IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE);


Parameters



Table 48-4 INSTANCE Procedure Parameters























Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.



instance



When a job is submitted, a user can specify which instance can run the job.



force



If this is TRUE, then any positive integer is acceptable as the job instance. If this is FALSE (the default), then the specified instance must be running; otherwise the routine raises an exception.







Usage Notes


You must issue a COMMIT statement immediately after the statement.





INTERVAL Procedure


This procedure changes how often a job runs.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.INTERVAL ( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
interval IN VARCHAR2);


Parameters



Table 48-5 INTERVAL Procedure Parameters



















Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.



interval



Date function, evaluated immediately before the job starts running.







Usage Notes



  • If the job completes successfully, then this new date is placed in next_date. interval is evaluated by plugging it into the statement select interval into next_date from dual;



  • The interval parameter must evaluate to a time in the future. Legal intervals include:
























    Interval Description
    'sysdate + 7' Run once a week.
    'next_day(sysdate,'TUESDAY')' Run once every Tuesday.
    'null' Run only once.




  • If interval evaluates to NULL and if a job completes successfully, then the job is automatically deleted from the queue.



  • You must issue a COMMIT statement immediately after the statement.






NEXT_DATE Procedure


This procedure changes when an existing job next runs.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.NEXT_DATE ( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
next_date IN DATE);


Parameters



Table 48-6 NEXT_DATE Procedure Parameters



















Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.



next_date



Date of the next refresh: it is when the job will be automatically
run, assuming there are background processes attempting to run it.







Usage Notes


You must issue a COMMIT statement immediately after the statement.





REMOVE Procedure


This procedure removes an existing job from the job queue. This currently does not stop a running job.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.REMOVE ( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER );


Parameters



Table 48-7 REMOVE Procedure Parameters















Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.







Usage Notes


You must issue a COMMIT statement immediately after the statement.



Example


BEGIN
DBMS_JOB.REMOVE(14144);
COMMIT;
END;




RUN Procedure


This procedure runs job JOB now. It runs it even if it is broken.


Running the job recomputes next_date. See view user_jobs.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.RUN ( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
force IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE);


Parameters



Table 48-8 RUN Procedure Parameters



















Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.



force



If this is TRUE, then instance affinity is irrelevant for running jobs in the foreground process. If this is FALSE, then the job can be run in the foreground only in the specified instance.







Example


EXECUTE DBMS_JOB.RUN(14144);


Caution:


This re-initializes the current session's packages.




Exceptions


An exception is raised if force is FALSE, and if the connected instance is the wrong one.





SUBMIT Procedure


This procedure submits a new job. It chooses the job from the sequence sys.jobseq.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.SUBMIT ( 
job OUT BINARY_INTEGER,
what IN VARCHAR2,
next_date IN DATE DEFAULT sysdate,
interval IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT 'null',
no_parse IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE,
instance IN BINARY_INTEGER DEFAULT any_instance,
force IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE);


Parameters



Table 48-9 SUBMIT Procedure Parameters







































Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.



what



PL/SQL procedure to run.



next_date



Next date when the job will be run.



interval



Date function that calculates the next time to run the job. The default is NULL. This must evaluate to a either a future point in time or NULL.



no_parse



A flag. The default is FALSE. If this is set to FALSE, then Oracle parses the procedure associated with the job. If this is set to TRUE, then Oracle parses the procedure associated with the job the first time that the job is run.


For example, if you want to submit a job before you have created the tables associated with the job, then set this to TRUE.



instance



When a job is submitted, specifies which instance can run the job.



force



If this is TRUE, then any positive integer is acceptable as the job instance. If this is FALSE (the default), then the specified instance must be running; otherwise the routine raises an exception.







Usage Notes



  • You must issue a COMMIT statement immediately after the statement.



  • The parameters instance and force are
    added for job queue affinity. Job queue affinity gives users the
    ability to indicate whether a particular instance or any instance can
    run a submitted job.




Example


This submits a new job to the job queue. The job calls the procedure DBMS_DDL.ANALYZE_OBJECT to generate optimizer statistics for the table DQUON.ACCOUNTS. The statistics are based on a sample of half the rows of the ACCOUNTS table. The job is run every 24 hours:


VARIABLE jobno number;
BEGIN
DBMS_JOB.SUBMIT(:jobno,
'dbms_ddl.analyze_object('TABLE',
'DQUON', 'ACCOUNTS',
'ESTIMATE', NULL, 50);'
SYSDATE, 'SYSDATE + 1');
COMMIT;
END;
/
Statement processed.
print jobno
JOBNO
----------
14144




USER_EXPORT Procedures


There are two overloaded procedures. The first produces the text of
a call to re-create the given job. The second alters instance affinity
(8i and after) and preserves the compatibility.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.USER_EXPORT ( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
mycall IN OUT VARCHAR2);

DBMS_JOB.USER_EXPORT (
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
mycall IN OUT VARCHAR2,
myinst IN OUT VARCHAR2);


Parameters



Table 48-10 USER_EXPORT Procedure Parameter























Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.



mycall



Text of a call to re-create the given job.



myinst



Text of a call to alter instance affinity.









WHAT Procedure


This procedure changes what an existing job does, and replaces its environment.



Syntax


DBMS_JOB.WHAT ( 
job IN BINARY_INTEGER,
what IN VARCHAR2);


Parameters



Table 48-11 WHAT Procedure Parameters



















Parameter Description

job



Number of the job being run.



what



PL/SQL procedure to run.







Usage Notes



  • You must issue a COMMIT statement immediately after the statement.



  • Some legal values of what (assuming the routines exist) are:



    • 'myproc('10-JAN-82', next_date, broken);'



    • 'scott.emppackage.give_raise('JENKINS', 30000.00);'



    • 'dbms_job.remove(job);'





本文转自

http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B19306_01/appdev.102/b14258/d_job.htm
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