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Unix Crontab - setting up cron jobs using crontab

发表于2008/9/29 22:04:00  921人阅读

分类: Linux/Unix/BSD

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Crontab - Quick reference



Setting up cronjobs in Unix and Solaris








cron is a unix, solaris utility that allows tasks to be automatically run in the
background at regular intervals by the cron daemon. These tasks are often termed as cron jobs in unix , solaris.

Crontab (CRON TABle) is a file which contains the schedule of cron entries to
be run and at specified times.





Following points sum up the crontab
functionality :































1.

Crontab Restrictions



2.
Crontab Commands



3.
Crontab file - syntax



4.
Crontab Example



5.
Crontab Environment



6.
Disable Email



7
. Generate log file for crontab activity
8.

Next Steps




1. Crontab Restrictions

____________

You can execute crontab if your name appears in the file /usr/lib/cron/cron.allow. If that file does not exist, you can use

crontab if your name does not appear in the file /usr/lib/cron/cron.deny.

If only cron.deny exists and is empty, all users can use crontab. If neither
file exists, only the root user can use crontab. The allow/deny files consist
of one user name per line.



2. Crontab
Commands

__________

export EDITOR=vi ;to specify a
editor to open crontab file.



crontab -e     Edit your crontab file, or create one if it
doesn't already exist.

crontab -l      Display your crontab file.

crontab -r      Remove your crontab file.

crontab -v      Display the last time you edited your
crontab file. (This option is only available on a few systems.)

 


3. Crontab file

___________

Crontab
syntax :-

A crontab file has five fields for specifying day , date and time  followed
by the command to be run at that interval.





*     *   *   *   
*  command to be executed

-     -    -    -   
-

|     |     |    
|     |

|     |     |    
|     +----- day of week (0 - 6) (Sunday=0)

|     |     |    
+------- month (1 - 12)

|     |     +--------- day of month
(1 - 31)

|     +----------- hour (0 - 23)

+------------- min (0 - 59)

 


* in the value field above means all legal values as in braces for that column.

The value column can have a * or a list of elements separated by
commas. An element is either a number in the ranges shown above or two
numbers in the range separated by a hyphen (meaning an inclusive
range).


Note: The specification of days can be made in two fields: month
day and weekday. If both are specified in an entry, they are cumulative
meaning both of the entries will get executed .

4. Crontab
Example

_______



A line in crontab file like below  removes the tmp files from /home/someuser/tmp
each day at 6:30 PM.

30     18    
*     *     *        

rm /home/someuser/tmp/*

 

Changing the parameter values as below will cause this command to run at
different time schedule below :






















































min hour day/month month day/week  Execution
time
30 0 1 1,6,12 * -- 00:30 Hrs 
on 1st of Jan, June & Dec.

:

0 20 * 10 1-5 --8.00 PM every
weekday (Mon-Fri) only in Oct.

:

0 0 1,10,15 * * -- midnight on
1st ,10th & 15th of month

:

5,10 0 10 * 1 -- At
12.05,12.10 every Monday & on 10th of every month
:

Note : If you inadvertently
enter the crontab command with no argument(s), do not attempt to get out with
Control-d. This removes all entries in your crontab file. Instead, exit with








Control-c.

5. Crontab
Environment

___________

cron invokes the command from the user's HOME directory with the shell, (/usr/bin/sh).


cron supplies a default environment for every shell, defining:

HOME=user's-home-directory

LOGNAME=user's-login-id

PATH=/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:.

SHELL=/usr/bin/sh



Users who desire to have their .profile executed must explicitly do so in the crontab entry or in a script called by the entry.



6. Disable Email

____________

By default cron jobs sends a email to the user account executing the cronjob.
If this is not needed put the following command At the end of the cron job line
.



>/dev/null 2>&1



7. Generate log file

________________

To collect the cron execution execution log in a file :



30 18  *    *   *    rm
/home/someuser/tmp/* > /home/someuser/cronlogs/clean_tmp_dir.log


8. Next
Steps



This  article  covered 
a significant aspect of system administration of setting up cronjobs .
Unix administration involves lots of different tasks and some of these tasks are
covered in this website  but still there are many areas not covered here .


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