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实例学习 Struts

发表于2004/6/26 17:07:00  2194人阅读

选用纯 JSP 还是纯 Servlet 设计站点都有它的局限性,Struts 就是把它们联系在一起的一种有力工具。采用 Struts 能开发出基于 MVC 模式的应用,关于 MVC 的概念可以参见 GoF 的《设计模式——可复用面向对象软件的基础》。

你现在要做的是,下载、安装、配置好以下的工具,版本不同的话操作可能会有些差异,具体的看它们的文档吧:

  • Tomcat 4.1.24
  • Apache 2.0.43, w/ mod_jk2 2.0.43
  • Java 2 SDK Standard Edition 1.4.0
  • Struts 1.1
  • Eclipse 2.1.0

    Struts 是用 Java 写的,应此它需要 JDK 1.2 或者更高版本。如果你用的是 JDK 1.4,就像我,XML parser 和 JDBC 2.0 Optional Package Binary 就已经被默认的包含了。

    新项目

    在这个例程中我们要开发一个简单的 web 应用,允许用户登录和注销。简单起见,数据被设定为常数,而不是保存在数据库中,毕竟这里要讲的是 Struts,而不是 Java。

    首先在你的 Tomcat 配置的应用主目录中创建一个目录,比方说 logonApp。在 logonApp 中创建目录 src 和 WEB-INF,在 WEB-INF 中创建目录 classes 和 lib,从 Struts 的分发中拷贝 struts.jar 到 lib 目录,而且也把拷贝 $CATALINA_HOME/common/lib/servlets.jar 到 lib 目录。从 Struts 的分发中拷贝所有的 struts*.tld 到 WEB-INF 目录。

    现在打开 Eclipse,你会看到四个 view。现在我们要建立一个新的项目,点击 File -> New Project,打开了一个窗口,在第一个窗格中选择 Java,在第二个窗格中选择 Java Project,点击 Next。输入项目名称(为了好记,就也叫 logonApp 吧),去掉 use default 复选框的对勾,浏览到 logonApp 目录,点击 Next。出现一个新的窗口,在 Source tab 上点击 Add Folder,添加 $APP_BASE/src,在 Default output folder 中填入 $APP_BASE/WEB-INF/classes,点击 Finish。点击 Window -> Open Perspective -> Resource,看看 .project 文件是否已经自动包含了 lib 目录中所有的 jar 文件。

    你的 logonApp/WEB-INF/web.xml 应该如下所示:

    <?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE web-app PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems, Inc.//DTD Web Application 2.3//EN" "http://java.sun.com/j2ee/dtds/web-app_2_3.dtd"> <web-app> <!-- Action Servlet Configuration --> <servlet> <servlet-name>action</servlet-name> <servlet-class>org.apache.struts.action.ActionServlet</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>config</param-name> <param-value>/WEB-INF/struts-config.xml</param-value> </init-param> <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> </servlet> <!-- Action Servlet Mapping --> <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>action</servlet-name> <url-pattern>*.do</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> <!-- The Welcome File List --> <welcome-file-list> <welcome-file>index.jsp</welcome-file> </welcome-file-list> <!-- Struts Tag Library Descriptors --> <taglib> <taglib-uri>/WEB-INF/struts-bean.tld</taglib-uri> <taglib-location>/WEB-INF/struts-bean.tld</taglib-location> </taglib> <taglib> <taglib-uri>/WEB-INF/struts-html.tld</taglib-uri> <taglib-location>/WEB-INF/struts-html.tld</taglib-location> </taglib> <taglib> <taglib-uri>/WEB-INF/struts-logic.tld</taglib-uri> <taglib-location>/WEB-INF/struts-logic.tld</taglib-location> </taglib> </web-app> 

    Struts 的配置文件 logonApp/WEB-INF/struts-config.xml 如下:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE struts-config PUBLIC "-//Apache Software Foundation//DTD Struts Configuration 1.1//EN" "http://jakarta.apache.org/struts/dtds/struts-config_1_1.dtd"> <struts-config> <form-beans> <form-bean name="logonForm" type="org.apache.struts.validator.DynaValidatorForm"> <form-property name="username" type="java.lang.String"/> <form-property name="password" type="java.lang.String"/> </form-bean> </form-beans> <global-forwards> <forward name="success" path="/main.jsp"/> <forward name="logoff" path="/logoff.do"/> </global-forwards> <action-mappings> <action path="/logon" type="org.monotonous.struts.LogonAction" name="logonForm" scope="session" input="logon"> </action> <action path="/logoff" type="org.monotonous.struts.LogoffAction"> <forward name="success" path="/index.jsp"/> </action> </action-mappings> <controller> <!-- The "input" parameter on "action" elements is the name of a local or global "forward" rather than a module-relative path --> <set-property property="inputForward" value="true"/> </controller> <message-resources parameter="org.monotonous.struts.ApplicationResources"/> </struts-config> 

    创建 View

    现在回到 Eclipse,建立一个新页面 index.jsp:
    <%@ page contentType="text/html;charset=UTF-8" language="java" %> <%@ taglib uri="/WEB-INF/struts-bean.tld" prefix="bean" %> <%@ taglib uri="/WEB-INF/struts-html.tld" prefix="html" %> <html:html locale="true"> <head> <title><bean:message key="index.title" /></title> <html:base/> </head> <body> <html:errors/> <html:form action="/logon"> <bean:message key="prompt.username"/> <html:text property="username"/> <br/> <bean:message key="prompt.password"/> <html:password property="password"/> <br/> <html:submit> <bean:message key="index.logon"/> </html:submit> </html:form> </body> </html:html> 

    成功登录后的页面 main.jsp:

    <%@ page contentType="text/html;charset=UTF-8" language="java" %> <%@ taglib uri="/WEB-INF/struts-bean.tld" prefix="bean" %> <%@ taglib uri="/WEB-INF/struts-html.tld" prefix="html" %> <html:html> <head> <title><bean:message key="main.title"/></title> <html:base/> </head> <body> <html:link forward="logoff"> <bean:message key="main.logoff"/> </html:link> </body> </html:html> 

    你可能注意到这两个页面中都使用了方便国际化的特性,这至少需要一个默认的属性文件 ApplicationResources.properties:

    index.title=Struts Homepage prompt.username=Username prompt.password=Password index.logon=Log on main.title=Struts Main page main.logoff=Log off error.password.mismatch=Invalid username and/or password. 

    创建 Controller

    LogonAction.java:

    package org.monotonous.struts; import java.util.Locale; import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest; import javax.servlet.http.HttpSession; import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse; import org.apache.struts.action.Action; import org.apache.struts.action.ActionError; import org.apache.struts.action.ActionErrors; import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm; import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForward; import org.apache.struts.action.ActionMapping; import org.apache.struts.util.MessageResources; import org.apache.commons.beanutils.PropertyUtils; public final class LogonAction extends Action { public ActionForward execute( ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form, HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception { Locale locale = getLocale(request); MessageResources messages = getResources(request); // Validate the request parameters specified by the user ActionErrors errors = new ActionErrors(); String username = (String) PropertyUtils.getSimpleProperty(form, "username"); String password = (String) PropertyUtils.getSimpleProperty(form, "password"); if ((username != "foo") || (password != "bar")) errors.add(ActionErrors.GLOBAL_ERROR, new ActionError("error.password.mismatch")); // Report any errors we have discovered back to the original form if (!errors.isEmpty()) { saveErrors(request, errors); return (mapping.getInputForward()); } // Save our logged-in user in the session HttpSession session = request.getSession(); // Do something with session... // Remove the obsolete form bean if (mapping.getAttribute() != null) { if ("request".equals(mapping.getScope())) request.removeAttribute(mapping.getAttribute()); else session.removeAttribute(mapping.getAttribute()); } // Forward control to the specified success URI return (mapping.findForward("success")); } } 

    LogoffAction.java:

    package org.monotonous.struts; import java.util.Locale; import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest; import javax.servlet.http.HttpSession; import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse; import org.apache.struts.action.Action; import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm; import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForward; import org.apache.struts.action.ActionMapping; import org.apache.struts.util.MessageResources; public final class LogoffAction extends Action { public ActionForward execute( ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form, HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception { Locale locale = getLocale(request); MessageResources messages = getResources(request); HttpSession session = request.getSession(); session.removeAttribute("userattrib"); session.invalidate(); // Forward control to the specified success URI return (mapping.findForward("success")); } } 

    到浏览器里面欣赏一下吧,不过还不到开香槟的时候,也许你应该为这个应用考虑一些安全措施,下一次我再讲咯。

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