## CSDN博客

### 提问的智慧 (How To Ask Questions The Smart Way)

Copyright (C) 2001 by Eric S. Raymond

（欢迎对本指南提出改进意见。任何建议请E-mailesr@thyrsus.com，然而请注意，本文并非网络礼节的通用指南，我通常会拒绝无助于在技术论坛得到有用答案的建议。）

（当然，如果你写中文，最好还是寄到DHGrand@hotmail.com;-

1. 通读手册，试着自己找答案。

2. FAQ里找答案（一份维护得好的FAQ可以包罗万象:）。

4. 向你身边精于此道的朋友打听。

1. 在风马牛不相及的论坛贴出你的问题

2. 在探讨高级技巧的论坛张贴非常初级的问题；反之亦然

3. 在太多的不同新闻组交叉张贴

XFree86 4.1下鼠标光标变形，Fooware MV1005的显示芯片。

1. 谨慎明确的描述症状。

2. 提供问题发生的环境（机器配置、操作系统、应用程序以及别的什么）。

3. 说明你在提问前是怎样去研究和理解这个问题的。

4. 说明你在提问前采取了什么步骤去解决它。

5. 罗列最近做过什么可能有影响的硬件、软件变更。

Simon Tatham写过一篇名为《如何有效的报告Bug》的出色短文。强力推荐你也读一读。

Corsair PC133

SDRAM，在内核编译中频频产生SIG11错误，从开机20分钟以后就有这种情况，开机前20分钟内从没发生过。重启也没有用，但是关机一晚上就又能工作20分钟。所有内存都换过了，没有效果。相关部分的典型编译记录如下...

（我们注意到，自从本指南发布后，从资深黑客处得到的唯一严重缺陷反馈，就是对预先道谢这一条。一些黑客觉得“先谢了”的言外之意是过后就不会再感谢任何人了。我们的建议是：都道谢。）

RTFM and STFW: How To Tell You've Seriously Screwed Up

There is an ancient and hallowed tradition: if you get a reply that reads "RTFM", the person who sent it thinks you should have Read The Fucking Manual. He is almost certainly right. Go read it.

RTFM has a younger relative. If you get a reply that reads "STFW", the person who sent it thinks you should have Searched The Fucking Web. He is almost certainly right. Go search it.

Often, the person sending either of these replies has the manual or the web page with the information you need open, and is looking at it as he types. These replies mean that he thinks (a) the information you need is easy to find, and (b) you will learn more if you seek out the information than if you have it spoon-fed to you.

You shouldn't be offended by this; by hacker standards, he is showing you a rough kind of respect simply by not ignoring you. You should instead thank him for his grandmotherly kindness.

Dealing with rudeness

Much of what looks like rudeness in hacker circles is not intended to give offence. Rather, it's the product of the direct, cut-through-the-bullshit communications style that is natural to people who are more concerned about solving problems than making others feel warm and fuzzy.

When you perceive rudeness, try to react calmly. If someone is really acting out, it is very likely that a senior person on the list or newsgroup or forum will call him or her on it. If that doesn't happen and you lose your temper, it is likely that the person you lose it at was behaving within the hacker community's norms and you will be considered at fault. This will hurt your chances of getting the information or help you want.

On the other hand, you will occasionally run across rudeness and posturing that is quite gratuitous. The flip-side of the above is that it is acceptable form to slam real offenders quite hard, dissecting their misbehavior with a sharp verbal scalpel. Be very, very sure of your ground before you try this, however. The line between correcting an incivility and starting a pointless flamewar is thin enough that hackers themselves not infrequently blunder across it; if you are a newbie or an outsider, your chances of avoiding such a blunder are low. If you're after information rather than entertainment, it's better to keep your fingers off the keyboard than to risk this.

(Some people assert that many hackers have a mild form of autism or Asperger's Syndrome, and are actually missing some of the brain circuitry that lubricates normal' human social interaction. This may or may not be true. If you are not a hacker yourself, it may help you cope with our eccentricities if you think of us as being brain-damaged. Go right ahead. We won't care; we like being whatever it is we are, and generally have a healthy skepticism about clinical labels.)

In the next section, we'll talk about a different issue; the kind of rudeness' you'll see when you misbehave.

On Not Reacting Like A Loser

Odds are you'll screw up a few times on hacker community forums — in ways detailed in this article, or similar. And you'll be told exactly how you screwed up, possibly with colourful asides. In public.

When this happens, the worst thing you can do is whine about the experience, claim to have been verbally assaulted, demand apologies, scream, hold your breath, threaten lawsuits, complain to people's employers, leave the toilet seat up, etc. Instead, here's what you do:

Get over it. It's normal. In fact, it's healthy and appropriate.

Community standards do not maintain themselves: They're maintained by people actively applying them, visibly, in public. Don't whine that all criticism should have been conveyed via private mail: That's not how it works. Nor is it useful to insist you've been personally insulted when someone comments that one of your claims was wrong, or that his views differ. Those are loser attitudes.

There have been hacker forums where, out of some misguided sense of hyper-courtesy, participants are banned from posting any fault-finding with another's posts, and told "Don't say anything if you're unwilling to help the user." The resulting departure of clueful participants to elsewhere causes them to descend into meaningless babble and become useless as technical forums.

Exaggeratedly "friendly" (in that fashion) or useful: Pick one.

Remember: When that hacker tells you that you've screwed up, and (no matter how gruffly) tells you not to do it again, he's acting out of concern for (1) you and (2) his community. It would be much easier for him to ignore you and filter you out of his life. If you can't manage to be grateful, at least have a little dignity, don't whine, and don't expect to be treated like a fragile doll just because you're a newcomer with a theatrically hypersensitive soul and delusions of entitlement.

1.  你还有什么要补充的吗？

2.  真糟糕，希望你能搞定。

3.  这跟我有什么鸟相关？

If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO.

When you release software or write patches for software, try to follow the guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO.

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