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Solaris管理员常用168条命令

发表于2004/10/12 11:28:00  1766人阅读

SysAdmin Commands

Debugging

  truss executable
/* Trace doing of given command ( useful debugging ) */ 

  truss -f -p <pid of a shell>
/* Using multiple windows, this can be used to trace setuid/setgid programs */ 

Arp, ethernet trouble shooting 

  arp -a .
/* Shows the ethernet address arp table */ 

  arp -d myhost
/* Delete a stale ethernet entry for host myhost */ 

Disk Commands 

  du -k .
/* Reports disk space used in Kilobytes */ 

  du -sk .
/* Reports only total disk space used in Kilobytes */ 

  du -sk *|sort -k1,1n
/* Reports total disk space used in Kilobytes in present directory */

  du -ad /var | sort -nr
/* Tells you how big the /var files are in reverse order */ 

  fdformat -d -U
/* Format diskette */ 

  /usr/bin/iostat -E
/* Command to display drives statistics */ 

  /bin/mount -F hsfs -o ro /dev/sr0 /cdrom
/* Mount an ISO 9660 CDROM */ 

  newfs -Nv /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s1
/* To view the superfblocks available */ 

  prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2
/* Disk geometry and partitioning info */ 

  quot -af
/* How much space is used by users in kilobytes */ 

Driver Parameters 

  ndd /dev/ip /?
/* Shows IP variables in the kernel */ 

  ndd /dev/ip ip_forwarding
/* Tells you if forwarding is on (=1) */ 

  ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forwarding 1
/* Enables IP forwarding between interfaces */ 

File Manipulation 

  dos2unix | -ascii <filename>
/* Converts DOS file formats to Unix */ 

  split
/* Split files into pieces */ 

  [vi] : %s/existing/new/g
/* Search and Replace text in vi */ 

  [vi] :set nu
/* Set line numbers in vi */ 

  [vi] :set ts=[num]
/* Set tab stops in vi */ 

File System 

  cat /dev/null > filename
/* Zero's out the file without breaking pipe */ 

  dd if=/dev/rdsk/... of=/dev/rdsk/... bs=4096
/* Make a mirror image of your boot disk */ 

  df -k | grep dg| awk '{print $6}' |xargs -n 1 umount
/* Unmount all file systems in disk group dg */ 

  fsck -F ufs /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0
/* Check a UFS filesystem on c0t0d0s0 */ 

  fsck -F ufs -y /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0
/* Check answering yes to all questions */ 

  fsck -F ufs -o b=97472 /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0
/* Check using an alternate super block */ 

  gzip -dc file1.tar.gz | tar xf -
/* Unpack .tar.gz files in place */ 

  gzip -d -c tarball.tgz | (cd /[dir];tar xf - ) &
/* Unpacking tarballs to diff location */ 

  ln [-fhns] <source file> <destination file>
/* Creating hard links and soft links */ 

  ls -la | awk '{ print $5,"    ",$9 }' | sort -rn
/* File sizes of current directory */ 

  mount -f pcfs /dev/dsk/c0d0p1 /export/dos
/* Mount DOS fdisk partition from Solaris */ 

  mount -F ufs -o rw,remount /
/* Used to remount root to make it writeable */ 

  mount -o remount,logging /spare
/* Re-mount the ro file system rw and turn on ufs logging */ 

  pax -rw . /newdir
/* Efficient alternative for copying directories */ 

  prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard -s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2
/* Cloning Partitiontables */ 

  tar cvf filename.tar
/* Create a tape (tar) archive */ 

  tar xvf filename.tar
/* Extract a tape (tar) archive */ 

  tar cf - . | (cd /newdir ; tar xf -)
/* Recursively copy files and their permissions */ 

  /sbin/uadmin x x
/* Syncs File Systems and Reboots systems fast */ 

  zcat [cpio file] | cpio -itmv
/* Show the contents of a compressed cpio */ 

  zcat <patch_file.tar.Z | tar xvf -
/* Extract the patch_file that is a compressed tar file */ 

File Transfer 

  get filename.suffix |"tar xf -"
/* Undocumented Feature of FTP */ 

  put "| tar cf - ." filename.tar
/* Undocumented Feature of FTP */ 

  find . -depth | cpio -pdmv /path/tobe/copied/to
/* Fast alternative to cp -pr */ 

  sendport
/* Transferring large numbers of files within the same ftp control session */ 

General 

  /usr/bin/catman -w
/* Create windex databases for man page directories */ 

  FQ_FILENAME=<fully_qualified_file_name>; echo ${FQ_FILENAME%/*}
/* Extract directory from fully-qualified file name. */ 

  mailx -H -u <username>
/* List out mail headers for specified user */ 

  set filec
/* Set file-completion for csh */ 

  uuencode [filename] [filename] | mailx -s "Subject" [user to mail]
/* Send files as attachments */ 

Hardware 

  cfgadm
/* Verify reconfigurable hardware resources */ 

  m64config -prconf
/* Print M64 hardware configuration */ 

  m64config -depth 8|24
/* Sets the screen depth of your M64 graphics accelerator */ 

  m64config -res 'video_mode'
/* Change the resolution of your M64 graphics accelerator */ 

Kernel 

  /usr/sbin/modinfo
/* Display kernel module information */ 

  /usr/sbin/modload <module>
/* Load a kernel module */ 

  /usr/sbin/modunload -i <module id>
/* Unload a kernel module */ 

  nm -x /dev/ksyms | grep OBJ | more
/* Tuneable kernel parameters */ 

  /usr/sbin/sysdef
/* Show system kernal tunable details */ 

Memory 

  prtconf | grep Mem
/* Display Memory Size */ 

Network Information 

  ndd /dev/arp arp_cache_report
/* Prints ARP table in cache with IP and MAC address */ 

  netstat -a | grep EST | wc -l
/* Displays number active established connections to the localhost */ 

  netstat -k hme0
/* Undocumented netstat command */ 

  netstat -i
/* Show the TCP/IP network interfaces */ 

  netstat -np
/* Similar to arp -a without name resolution */ 

  netstat -r
/* Show network route table */ 

  netstat -rn
/* Displays routing information but bypasses hostname lookup. */ 

  netstat -a | more
/* Show the state of all sockets */ 

  traceroute <ipaddress>
/* Follow the route to the ipaddress */ 

Network/Tuning 

  ifconfig eth0 mtu 1500
/* Change MTU of interface */ 

  ifconfig eth0 10.1.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.255
/* Add an Interface */ 

  /sbin/ifconfig hme0:1 inet 10.210.xx.xxx netmask 255.255.0.0 broadcast 10.210.xxx.xxx
/* Virtual Interfaces */ 

  /sbin/ifconfig hme0:1 up
/* Bring virtual interface up */ 

  /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/hme adv_100fdx_cap 1
/* Nailling to 100Mbps */ 

  ndd -set /dev/ip ip_addrs_per_if 1-8192
/* To set more than 256 virtual ip addresses. */ 

  ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_xmit_hiwat 65535
/* Increase TCP-transmitbuffers */ 

  ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_recv_hiwat 65535
/* Increase TCP-receivebuffers */ 

Processes 

  fuser -uc /var
/* Processes that are running from /var */ 

  kill -HUP `ps -ef | grep [p]roccess | awk '{print $2}'`
/* HUP any related process in one step */ 

  lsof -i TCP:25
/* Mapping port with process */ 

  pfiles <pid>
/* Shows processes' current open files */ 

  pkill -n <name>
/* Kill a process by name */ 

  kill `ps -ef | grep program_name | grep -v grep | cut -f8 -d ' '`
/* pkill for solaris 2.6 */ 

  prstat -a
/* An alternative for top command */ 

  /usr/ucb/ps -aux | more
/* Displays CPU % usage for each process in ascending order */ 

  /usr/ucb/ps -auxww | grep <process name>
/* Gives the full listing of the process (long listing) */ 

  ps -ef | grep -i <string> | awk '{ print $2 }'
/* Creates list of running PID by */ 

  ps -ef | grep -v "0:00" | more
/* Gives you a list of any process with CPU time more than 0:00 */ 

  ps -ef | more
/* Show all processes running */ 

  ps -eo pid,args
/* List processes in simplified format */ 

  ps -fu oracle|grep pmon
/* See which instances of Oracle are running */ 

  /usr/proc/bin/ptree <pid>
/* Print the parent/child process 'tree' of a process */ 

  /usr/proc/bin/pwdx <pid>
/* Print the working directory of a process */ 

  top -b 1
/* Returns the process utilizing the most cpu and quits */ 

Resource Management 

  /usr/bin/ldd [filename]
/* List the dynamic dependencies of executable files */ 

  /usr/proc/bin/pmap pid
/* Report address space map a process occupies */ 

Route Configuration 

  route add net 128.50.0.0 128.50.1.6 1
/* Adds route to 128.50 network via 128.50.1.6 */ 

  route change 128.50.0.0 128.50.1.5
/* Changes the destination address for a route */ 

  route delete net 128.50.0.0 128.50.1.6
/* Deletes route to 128.50 network */ 

  route get [hostname]
/* Which interface will be used to contact hostname */ 

  route monitor
/* Monitors traffic to the routes */ 

  route flush
/* Removes all entries in the route table */ 

Searching Items 

  egrep "patterna|patternb" <filename>
/* Search for multiple patterns within the same file */ 

  find . -exec egrep -li "str" {} /;
/* Find a string in files starting cwd */ 

  find / -fstype nfs -prune -o fstype autofs -prune -o -name filename -print
/* Find without traversing NFS mounted file systems */ 

  find . -mtime -1 -type f
/* Find recently modified files */
 
  find / -mtime <# of days>
/* Find files modified during the past # of days */

  find . ! -mtime -<days> | /usr/bin/xargs rm -rf
/* Finds and removes files older than <days> specified */ 

  find . -type f -exec grep "<sub-string>" {} /; -print
/* Find files (and content) containing <sub-string> within directory tree */ 

  find . -type f -exec grep -l "<sub-string>" {} /;
/* Find filenames containing <sub-string> within directory tree */ 

  find . -type f -print | xargs grep -i [PATTERN]
/* Recursive grep on files */ 

  find / -user <username>
/* Find all files owned by <username> */ 

  find / | grep [file mask]
/* Fast way to search for files */ 

  find <start_path> -name "<file_name>" -exec rm -rf {} /;
/* Recursively finds files by name and automatically removes them */ 

  find /proc/*/fd -links 0 -type f -size +2000 -ls
/* Find large files held open by a process */ 

  ls -lR | grep <sub_string>
/* Fast alternative to find */ 

Security 

  echo 'Please go away' > /etc/nologin
/* Stops users logging in */ 

  find / -perm -0777 -type d -ls
/* Find all your writable directories */ 

  find / -type f -perm -2000 -print
/* Find all SGID files */ 

  find / -type f -perm -4000 -print
/* find all SUID files */ 

Set Terminal Options 

  stty erase ^H
/* Sets the Backspace Key to erase */ 

  stty erase ^?
/* Sets the Delete Key to erase */ 

  stty sane
/* Rreset terminal after viewing a binary file. */ 

  tput rmacs
/* Reset to standard char set */ 

Snoop Your Network 

  snoop -d pcelx0
/* Watch all network packets on device pcelx0 */ 

  snoop -o /tmp/mylog pcelx0
/* Saves packets from device pcelx0 to a file */ 

  snoop -i /tmp/mylog host1 host2
/* View packets from logfile between host1 & host2 */ 

  snoop -i /tmp/mylog -v -p101
/* Show all info on packet number 101 from a logfile */ 

  snoop -i /tmp/mylog -o /tmp/newlog host1
/* Write a new logfile with all host1 packets */ 

  snoop -s 120
/* Return the first 120 bytes in the packet header */ 

  snoop -v arp
/* Capture arp broadcasts on your network */ 

Swap File 

  mkfile -v 10m /export/disk1/myswap
/* Makes a 10 Megabyte swapfile in /export/disk */ 

  mkfile -nv 10m /export/disk1/myswap
/* Makes an empty 10 Megabyte swapfile */ 

Swap Space 

  swap -s
/* List the amount of swap space available, also see mkfile */ 

  swap -a /export/disk1/swapfile
/* Add a swapfile */ 

  swap -d /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s4
/* Deletes a swap device */ 

  swap -l
/* List the current swap devices */ 

System Configuration 

  drvconfig ; disks
/* Adding hot-plug disks to system */ 

  /usr/sbin/eeprom auto-boot? false
/* Changes eeprom autoboot? setting without going to Ok prompt */ 

  /usr/sbin/eeprom diag-switch? true
/* Set the system to perform diagnostics on the next reboot. */ 

  /usr/sbin/eeprom local-mac-address?=true
/* Multiple Port Network Card Setting */ 

  /usr/sbin/grpck
/* Check /etc/group file syntax */ 

  /usr/sbin/pwck
/* Check /etc/passwd file syntax */ 

  /usr/sbin/sys-unconfig
/* Clear host specific network configuration information */ 

System Information and Monitoring 

  coreadm -e log
/* Report global core */ 

  /bin/echo "0t${stamp}>Y/n<Y=Y" | adb
/* Convert UNIX timestamp to something human-readable */ 

  /usr/sbin/eeprom
/* Show eeprom parameters */ 

  grep "/-root" /var/adm/sulog | grep -v /+ | tail -25
/* List most recent attempts to switch to superuser account. */ 

  isainfo -bv
/* Quickly checkout if machine is in 32 or 64 bit mode */ 

  last
/* Tells who was or still is on the system */ 

  logger -i
/* Log the process ID */ 

  psradm -f [processor id]
/* Take processor offline */ 

  /usr/sbin/prtconf -vp
/* Show system configuration details */ 

  /usr/platform/`/bin/uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag -v
/* System Diagnostics */ 

  prtconf -pv | grep banner-name |awk -F/' ' { print $2 } ' | head -1
/* Show actual model name of machine */ 

  psrinfo | wc -l
/* Display number of processors */ 

  sar -A <time in sec>
/* Provides cumulative system report. */ 

  sar -a <time in sec>
/* Report use of file access system routines. */ 

  sar -u
/* Report CPU Utilization */ 

  telnet <remote machine> 13 | grep ':'
/* Get the time on remote Unix machine */ 

  uname -a
/* Displays system information */ 

  vmstat 10
/* Displays summary of what the system is doing every 10 seconds */ 

  who -b
/* Displays the date of the last system reboot. */ 

  ypcat hosts | sort -n -t. +0 -1 +1 -2 +2 -3 +3 -4
/* Take the input of "ypcat hosts" or "cat /etc/inet/hosts" and sort by IP. */ 

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