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数据库性能优化分析案例---解决SQL语句过度消耗CPU问题

发表于2004/10/26 23:43:00  1469人阅读

分类: oracle技术

问题描述:
10月25日上午滨州网通的工程师报告OSS应用系统运行缓慢,具体操作是通过OSS系统查询话单,很长时间才能返回结果,严重影响了客户的正常使用。

问题处理:
1.登陆数据库主机,用sar命令看到idle的值持续为0,CPU的资源已经耗尽:

bz_db1# sar 2 4

SunOS bz_db1 5.8 Generic_108528-19 sun4u    10/26/04

10:56:46    %usr    %sys    %wio   %idle
10:56:48       1       4      95       0
10:56:50       1       5      94       0
10:56:52       0       6      93       0
10:56:54       1       6      93       0

Average        1       5      94      0


2.使用TOP命令看到有两个明显占用CPU利用率过高的进程,以下是top命令的结果:

bz_db1# top

last pid:  1664;load averages:  3.26,  3.24,  3.69                       
159 processes: 152 sleeping, 2 running, 2 zombie, 1 stopped, 2 on cpu
CPU states:  1.5% idle, 72.5% user, 17.9% kernel,  8.0% iowait,  0.0% swap
Memory: 2.0G real, 233M free, 2.0G swap in use, 3.4G swap free

   PID USERNAME THR PR NCE  SIZE   RES STATE   TIME FLTS    CPU COMMAND
 27420 oracle     1 10   0  1.3G  1.2G cpu01  22.9H    2 31.94% oracle
 27418 oracle     1 10   0  1.3G  1.2G run    23.0H    6 26.86% oracle
  5943 oracle     1 59   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep  25:26   37  4.92% oracle
  6295 oracle     1 55   0  1.3G  1.2G run    25:14   74  4.90% oracle
  7778 oracle     1 43   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep  11:43  110  4.86% oracle
 13270 oracle     1 59   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep 210.6H    0  0.96% oracle
 13056 oracle     1 48   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep 303:30    0  0.37% oracle
 10653 root       1 58   0 2560K 1624K cpu00   0:00    0  0.32% top
 18827 oracle     1 58   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep  18.4H    0  0.31% oracle
 12748 oracle   258 58   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep 555:14    0  0.21% oracle
 10634 oracle     1 59   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep   0:01    0  0.21% oracle
 28458 oracle     1 58   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep 535:02    0  0.18% oracle
 13075 oracle     1 59   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep 326:33    0  0.15% oracle
 13173 oracle     1 58   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep 593:07    0  0.13% oracle
  4927 oracle     1 59   0  1.3G  1.2G sleep  33.4H    0  0.11% oracle

可以看到这两个进程号分别是27420和27418.

3.捕获这两个占用CPU利用率过高的进程对应的SQL语句:

以下用到了我总结的SQL语句:

SQL>set line 240
SQL>set verify off
SQL>column sid format 999
SQL>column pid format 999
SQL>column S_# format 999
SQL>column username format A9 heading "ORA User"
SQL>column program  format a29
SQL>column SQL format a60
SQL>COLUMN OSname format a9 Heading "OS User"
SQL>SELECT P.pid pid,S.sid sid,P.spid spid,S.username username,
S.osuser osname,P.serial# S_#,P.terminal,P.program  program,
P.background,S.status,RTRIM(SUBSTR(a.sql_text, 1, 80))  SQL
FROM v$process P, v$session S,v$sqlarea A WHERE P.addr = s.paddr
AND S.sql_address = a.address (+)  AND P.spid LIKE '%&1%';

Enter value for 1: 27420(注意这里应输入占用CPU最高的进程对应的PID)

得到以下SQL语句:

Select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0),nvl(sum(usage),0) from LOCALUSAGE where to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20041016
and LOCALCHARGE>0 and caller like '0543886%';

27418进程对应的SQL语句如下:
select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0) from LOCALUSAGE where to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20041016 and caller like '0543888%';


4.使用相关用户连接到数据库,检查其执行计划:
SQL>connect wacos/oss
Connected.

SQL>@?/rdbms/admin/utlxplan.sql
Table created.

SQL>set autotrace on

SQL>set timing on

SQL>Select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0),nvl(sum(usage),0) from LOCALUSAGE where to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20041016
 and LOCALCHARGE>0 and caller like '0543886%';

NVL(SUM(LOCALCHARGE),0) NVL(SUM(USAGE),0)
----------------------- -----------------
                      0                 0

Elapsed: 00:02:56.37

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
   0      SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=13435 Card=1 Bytes=5
          3)

   1    0   SORT (AGGREGATE)
   2    1     PARTITION RANGE (ALL)
   3    2       TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF 'LOCALUSAGE' (Cost=13435 Card=1
          81 Bytes=9593)

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
        258  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
      88739  consistent gets
      15705  physical reads
          0  redo size
        580  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
        651  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          8  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
          1  rows processed

发现对localusage表做了全表扫描,什么记录也没有返回居然用了2分多钟。

SQL> select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0) from LOCALUSAGE where to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20040816 and caller like '0543888%';

NVL(SUM(LOCALCHARGE),0)
-----------------------
                   27.6

Elapsed: 00:03:56.46

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
   0      SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=13435 Card=1 Bytes=4
          0)

   1    0   SORT (AGGREGATE)
   2    1     PARTITION RANGE (ALL)
   3    2       TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF 'LOCALUSAGE' (Cost=13435 Card=3
          615 Bytes=144600)

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
          0  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
      88588  consistent gets
      15615  physical reads
          0  redo size
        507  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
        651  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          0  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
          1  rows processed

这个SQL语句有结果返回,发现也是对localusage表做了全表扫描,但速度也很慢,用了3分多钟。

SQL> select count(*) from localusage;

  COUNT(*)
----------
   5793776

该表有579万多条记录,数据量很大,全表扫描已经不再适合。

5.检查该表的类型:

SQL> SELECT INDEX_NAME, TABLE_NAME, STATUS, PARTITIONED FROM USER_INDEXES WHERE TABLE_NAME='LOCALUSAGE';

INDEX_NAME                     TABLE_NAME                     STATUS   PAR
------------------------------ ------------------------------ -------- ---
I_LOCALUSAGE_SID               LOCALUSAGE                     N/A      YES
UI_LOCALUSAGE_ST_SEQ           LOCALUSAGE                     N/A      YES

SQL> SELECT index_name,table_name,locality FROM user_part_indexes where table_name='LOCALUSAGE';

INDEX_NAME                     TABLE_NAME                     LOCALI
------------------------------ ------------------------------ ------
I_LOCALUSAGE_SID               LOCALUSAGE                     LOCAL
UI_LOCALUSAGE_ST_SEQ           LOCALUSAGE                     LOCAL

发现该表是分区表,并在SERVICEID,STARTIME和CDRSEQUENCE列上建立了分区索引,索引类型是local索引。

6.查看分区索引的索引键值:

SQL> select INDEX_NAME,COLUMN_NAME,INDEX_OWNER from dba_ind_columns where TABLE_NAME='LOCALUSAGE';

INDEX_NAME           COLUMN_NAME          INDEX_OWNER
-------------------- -------------------- ------------------------------
I_LOCALUSAGE_SID     SERVICEID            WACOS
UI_LOCALUSAGE_ST_SEQ STARTTIME            WACOS
UI_LOCALUSAGE_ST_SEQ CDRSEQUENCE          WACOS

发现在endtime和caller列上都没有建立索引,这也是导致SQL语句做全表扫描的最终原因。

7.决定创建新的分区索引以消除全表扫描:

(1).首先查看localusage表分区情况:

SQL> select PARTITION_NAME,tablespace_name from user_tab_partitions where table_name='LOCALUSAGE';

PARTITION_NAME                 TABLESPACE_NAME
------------------------------ ------------------------------
LOCALUSAGE_200312              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200401              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200402              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200404              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200405              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200406              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200407              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200409              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200410              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200411              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200403              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200408              WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200412              WACOS

13 rows selected.

(2).在caller列上创建local分区索引:
SQL>set timing on
SQL>create index I_LOCALUSAGE_CALLER on localusage(caller)
LOCAL
(      
        PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200312,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200401,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200402,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200404,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200405,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200406,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200407,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200409,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200410,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200411,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200403,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200408,
 PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200412
)
TABLESPACE wacos
STORAGE(
 INITIAL 6553600
 NEXT 6553600
 MAXEXTENTS unlimited
 PCTINCREASE 0)
 PCTFREE 5
 NOLOGGING;

Index created.

Elapsed: 00:06:27.90  (由于数据量比较大,耗时6分钟)

8.再次查看执行计划:
SQL>Select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0),nvl(sum(usage),0) from LOCALUSAGE where to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20041016
and LOCALCHARGE>0  and caller like '0543886%';

NVL(SUM(LOCALCHARGE),0) NVL(SUM(USAGE),0)
----------------------- -----------------
                      0                 0

Elapsed: 00:00:03.00

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
   0      SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=22 Card=1 Bytes=53)
   1    0   SORT (AGGREGATE)
   2    1     PARTITION RANGE (ALL)
   3    2       TABLE ACCESS (BY LOCAL INDEX ROWID) OF 'LOCALUSAGE' (Cost=22 Card=181 Bytes=9593)
   4    3         INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'I_LOCALUSAGE_CALLER' (NON-UNIQUE) (Cost=14 Card=65063)

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
          0  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
      16813  consistent gets
        569  physical reads
          0  redo size
        580  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
        651  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          0  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
          1  rows processed

这次走了索引后速度明显快多了,用了3秒钟就返回了结果。

SQL>select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0) from LOCALUSAGE where to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20040816 and caller like '0543888%';

NVL(SUM(LOCALCHARGE),0)
-----------------------
                   27.6

Elapsed: 00:00:24.73

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
   0      SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=22 Card=1 Bytes=40)
   1    0   SORT (AGGREGATE)
   2    1     PARTITION RANGE (ALL)
   3    2       TABLE ACCESS (BY LOCAL INDEX ROWID) OF 'LOCALUSAGE' (Cost=22 Card=3615 Bytes=144600)
   4    3         INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'I_LOCALUSAGE_CALLER' (NON-UNIQUE) (Cost=14 Card=65063)

Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
          0  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
     129336  consistent gets
       7241  physical reads
          0  redo size
        507  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
        651  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          0  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
          1  rows processed

这个SQL语句走了索引,用了24秒钟返回结果,性能明显提高了很多。

9.持续观察CPU的使用情况:
bz_db1# sar 2 4

SunOS bz_db1 5.8 Generic_108528-19 sun4u    10/26/04

12:09:38    %usr    %sys    %wio   %idle
12:09:40       1       2       0      97
12:09:42       1       0       0      98
12:09:44       2       2       2      94
12:09:46       1       0       2      97

Average        1       1       1      97

bz_db1# vmstat 3
 procs     memory            page            disk          faults      cpu
 r b w   swap  free  re  mf pi po fr de sr m2 m2 m2 m4   in   sy   cs us sy id
 0 0 0 9736008 2603896 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  4  3  3  0 4294967196 0 0 -27 -15 -128
 0 0 0 9183336 1596392 0  2 66  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  434  689 1255  1  0 99
 0 0 0 9183336 1596280 32 152 32 0 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  396 1046 1119  1  1 98
 0 0 0 9183336 1596016 3 32 37  0  0  0  0 28 22 22  0  601 1165 1777  2  1 98
 0 0 0 9183336 1595608 0  0 136 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  552 1155 1797  1  1 98
 0 0 0 9183336 1595304 0  0 77  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  531  993 1658  7  1 92

结果显示CPU使用率使用正常。

至此,此问题得以解决。

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