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古都Delphi

发表于2004/2/15 23:47:00  1458人阅读

分类: Delphi

希腊 漫步在历史与现实之间

 

  在古代希腊人心目中,古都特尔斐是宇宙的“肚脐”、世界的中心、生命的起源地。而事实上,西方的现代文明,如戏剧、艺术、哲学以及科学,都是起源于希腊。漫步在希腊保留至今的残垣断壁之间,你仿佛还能听到柏拉图的雄辩、荷马的吟唱,或者是阿伽门农的冲锋令……
  暮色中的卫城庄严而祥和。古代伟人和那些神话人物使古希腊遗留下来的一砖一瓦都散发着一种神秘的魅力,吸引你,震撼你,也安抚着你。

  卫城

  在雅典,无论从哪个方向你都可以看到海拔156米的卫城,而位于卫城最高处的巴特农神庙则是卫城最耀眼的明珠,也是举世闻名的古代七大奇观之一。巴特农神庙建于公元前447年,是著名建筑师和雕刻家菲迪亚斯的杰作。在经历了两千多年的风风雨雨之后,神庙已经只剩下一个大体的轮廓了。在这长70米、宽30米的硕大空间里,雅典守护神雅典娜高达12米的巨大金像早已不知所踪,只剩下46根高达10.43米的那多立斯式圆柱坚守在那里。不过,你仍可从这气势磅礴的柱子感受它当年的辉煌。

  建于132年的哈德良拱门是卫城的另一标志性建筑。拱门的柱子雕工精美,柱头有多重叶子,基座饰以线形花纹。拱门朝卫城西北方向刻有“这里是雅典,即提修斯古城”字样,而朝奥林匹亚宙斯神庙方向则刻有“这里是哈德良城,而非提修斯城”的字样。除了巴特农神庙和哈德良拱门,卫城还有很多让你眼花缭乱的历史遗迹。巴特农神庙附近的卫城博物馆有助于你掀开卫城的神秘面纱。

  奥林匹亚

  古代奥运会起源于宗教活动,而奥林匹亚是当时宗教祭祀的中心之一。公元前776年,古希腊人在奥林匹亚举行了第一届运动会。时至今日,这条最古老的奥运村还存有古代体育场遗址。它位于神殿区东面,四周是土坡修成的看台,可容纳4万多名观众。而纳姆菲翁神坛更因为是历届现代奥运会火炬点燃的地方而举世闻名。除了运动设施遗址,奥林匹亚还有宙斯神庙、赫拉神庙等遗迹。其中以宙斯神庙最为壮观,其石柱的直径达两米多。

  迈锡尼城

  约在公元前1150的时候,发生了著名的特洛伊战争。根据《荷马史诗》记载,战争因斯巴达王后海伦被特洛伊人抢走而引发。10年之后,斯巴达军队凭借“木马计”攻陷特洛伊战争才得以结束。而迈锡尼城就是当年斯巴达军队的大本营。穿过著名的“狮门”,就是迈锡尼城古宫殿的遗址。不过也有考古学家认为,那是当时的希腊统帅阿伽门农的府邸。宫殿并没有涂抹灰泥,内部结构复杂,还有如蜂巢般构造的神秘墓室。

  得洛斯岛

  位于爱琴海的得洛斯岛,传说是太阳神阿波罗和月神阿尔特弥斯的出生地。由于这个原因,在公元前4世纪的时候,这里是禁止出生和殡葬的。尽管如此,这个神的小岛还是逐渐由凡人建立出一个盛世。在公元前4世纪到公元前1世纪,得洛斯成为重要的贸易中心,当然也是基克拉迪文化的重要构成部分。可惜的是,在公元前80年的时候,得洛斯曾遭遇入侵者的洗劫,当地居民也遭到大屠杀。从此,这里就成为一个被遗忘的角落。直到19世纪的时候,它才被重新记起。

  如今,得洛斯又因旅游业重新繁荣起来。游人们无一不被岛上一所所造工精致的庙宇所倾倒。当年,虔诚的信徒们运用了他们的智慧和汗水,怀着恭敬的心为阿波罗或其他古希腊神建造了这些“行宫”。在阿波罗神庙不远处,就是他出生所在的圣湖。圣湖由一排大理石狮子守护着,庄严而神圣。酒神狄厄尼索斯的行宫还保留着精美的镶嵌图案,而克利奥帕特拉神庙里就只剩下一个无头的女神像了。

  令人心动的美酒佳肴

  希腊食品别具一格,常用特别的调味品,也正因为如此,有人“一吃钟情”,也有人刚好相反。总的来说,羔羊、鱼和橄榄油都是最常用的材料,而且很多时候它们都是和面包一起吃的,但风味绝对跟你平常吃的“三明治”不一样。

  希腊的饭店风格各异,形式多样,从高档食品到大众化小吃应有尽有。当地最常见的就是小酒馆,在里面用餐比在高级酒店随意得多。而在众多“家庭式”饭馆中,烤肉店、海鲜馆都是不错的选择。

  饭店之外,各式希腊小吃的香味也会随时随地向游人袭来,引得你食指大动。浓香的有蒜香乳酪,比较清淡的有菠菜馅饼,还有嫩口的蒜香羊肉串、简单的干酪馅饼、甜丝丝的果仁蜜饼等等。其中果仁蜜饼可是远近驰名。

有佳肴自然少不了美酒。希腊的葡萄酒和餐后酒品种多样,美名远扬。例如奥苏酒(Ouzo),这种通常和水掺着喝的餐后茴香酒就是希腊的著名特产之一。而说到白兰地,就要尝试一下迈塔克瑟白兰地(Metaxa)。至于松香葡萄酒(Retsina)则因为吸收了松木酒桶的清香而变得与众不同。相对松树的清香,马弗罗达夫尼酒(Mavrodaphne)则是甜甜的。总之,每一种美酒都值得你细细品尝。在没有尝试过另一种酒之前别轻易认定某一种,因为你很容易“移情别恋”。

 

Delphi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the city of Delphi. See for the programming language by the same name Delphi programming language. For the forecasting method by the same name see Delphi method.


Temple of Apollo at Delphi
Temple of Apollo at Delphi.
(
large version)

Delphi is a city of ancient Greece, home to the Delphic Oracle, dedicated to the god Apollo and inhabited by the nymph Cassotis, which was revered throughout the ancient world. The ancient Greeks considered Delphi the centre of the universe.

Delphi was located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Parnassus. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha in the Corinthian Gulf.

The name "Delphi" probably stems from Delphinios, an epithet for Apollo stemming from his connection to dolphins. Apollo allegedly came to Delphi with Cretan priests on the backs of dolphins. According to another legend, Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe.

Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle.

As a young man, Apollo killed the vicious dragon Python, which lived in Delphi beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees.

The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl, though her name was Herophile. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Still others claimed the Sibyll received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Thetis, who passed it to Phoebe.

This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings -- wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Macedonia, Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes.

 

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