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Direct3D极速入门宝典

发表于2004/5/28 11:00:00  1959人阅读

写给CSDN C/C++基础类版的朋友

 

    国庆终于结束了,荒凉的生活还将继续,尽管这个多雨的假日同样非常的荒凉。今晨出门时,一抬眼便是那阴沉的天空拢罩着这个可笑的城市,低的让我有点透不过气来。沉下头喘息间,忙碌的人群又有如风般从身边吹过。想到日子就这样一天天的就在这天上和地下的乌云中渡过,而我却依然在这忙碌的人群中迷茫、徘徊、游魂般的漂荡时,便不禁头涔涔而泪潸潸了,究竟我何时才能够寻觅到拥有那晴朗天空的海港呢?

 

    不说这些不开心的话了,上篇OpenGL入门指南没有完结,本来准备在这一篇中继续上篇的内容,主要讲述OpenGL的各种特效。但当我几要落笔时却发现我无法继续下去,OpenGL里的内容太多,只讲解一个特效,比如雾,就会占去大量的篇幅,甚至超过上篇。所以现在我只好为我的食言向大家道歉了。今此开始我们另一个有趣的主题——Direct3D,在下面的内容里我会仿照上一篇的讲解方法来从最简单的程序开始,制作一个类似于上篇例程的小方盒。费话不多说,下面就开始吧。

 

 

    听说DirectX9.0发布了吗?如果没有,你现在也应该听我说过了,那就去http://download.microsoft.com/download/b/6/a/b6ab32f3-39e8-4096-9445-d38e6675de85/dx90bsdk.exe下载一个最新的DirectX9.0SDK,因为我将使用D3D9来进行全文的讲解。其实DirectX9.0里有非常详细的教程和参考,大多数人只需要看看这些帮助就可以自己学习D3D了,我的这篇文章适合那些很懒但想快速入门、不懂英文或编程知识很欠缺的人看。装好DirectX9.0后,打开VC.net,新建一个Win32工程,在StdAfx.h里添加下面的语句:

 

#include          // D3D标准头文件

#include       // D3D数学库头文件

#include          // 这个不用我说了吧?

 

#pragma comment( lib, "d3d9" )          // D3D的静态库

#pragma comment( lib, "d3dx9" )         // D3D数学库的静态库

 

然后把winmain所在文件的代码做如下的修改:

 

#include "stdafx.h"

#define MAX_LOADSTRING 100

 

HINSTANCE g_hInst;

HWND g_hWnd;

IDirect3D9 *g_pD3D;

IDirect3DDevice9 *g_pd3dDevice;

IDirect3DVertexBuffer9 *g_pVB;

 

TCHAR szTitle[MAX_LOADSTRING];

TCHAR szWindowClass[MAX_LOADSTRING];

 

ATOM                          MyRegisterClass(HINSTANCE hInstance);

BOOL                          InitInstance(HINSTANCE, int);

LRESULT CALLBACK  WndProc(HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);

LRESULT CALLBACK  About(HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);

void OnIdle( void );

void OnCreate( HWND hWnd );

HRESULT InitD3D( void );

HRESULT CreateObject( void );

void ReleaseD3D( void );

HRESULT SetModalMatrix( void );

HRESULT SetProjMatrix( WORD wWidth, WORD wHeight );

void BeforePaint( void );

int APIENTRY _tWinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPTSTR    lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow)

{

       MSG msg;

       HACCEL hAccelTable;

 

       LoadString(hInstance, IDS_APP_TITLE, szTitle, MAX_LOADSTRING);

       LoadString(hInstance, IDC_D3DTEST, szWindowClass, MAX_LOADSTRING);

       MyRegisterClass(hInstance);

 

       if (!InitInstance (hInstance, nCmdShow))

       {

              return FALSE;

       }

 

       hAccelTable = LoadAccelerators(hInstance, (LPCTSTR)IDC_D3DTEST);

 

       while ( true )

       {

              if ( PeekMessage( &msg, NULL, 0, 0, PM_REMOVE ) )

              {

                     if (!TranslateAccelerator(msg.hwnd, hAccelTable, &msg))

                     {

                            TranslateMessage(&msg);

                            DispatchMessage(&msg);

                     }

                     continue;

              }

              if ( WM_QUIT == msg.message )

              {

                     break;

              }

              OnIdle();

       }

 

    UnregisterClass( szWindowClass, g_hInst );

 

       return (int)msg.wParam;

}

 

ATOM MyRegisterClass( HINSTANCE hInstance )

{

       WNDCLASSEX wcex;

 

       wcex.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);

 

       wcex.style                    = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;

       wcex.lpfnWndProc       = (WNDPROC)WndProc;

       wcex.cbClsExtra           = 0;

       wcex.cbWndExtra         = 0;

       wcex.hInstance             = hInstance;

       wcex.hIcon                  = LoadIcon(hInstance, (LPCTSTR)IDI_D3DTEST);

       wcex.hCursor        = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW);

       wcex.hbrBackground     = (HBRUSH)(COLOR_WINDOW+1);

       wcex.lpszMenuName     = (LPCTSTR)IDC_D3DTEST;

       wcex.lpszClassName     = szWindowClass;

       wcex.hIconSm             = LoadIcon(wcex.hInstance, (LPCTSTR)IDI_SMALL);

 

       return RegisterClassEx(&wcex);

}

 

BOOL InitInstance( HINSTANCE hInstance, int nCmdShow )

{

   g_hInst = hInstance;

   CreateWindow( szWindowClass, szTitle, WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW,

      CW_USEDEFAULT, 0, CW_USEDEFAULT, 0, NULL, NULL, hInstance, NULL );

   if ( !g_hWnd )

   {

      return FALSE;

   }

   ShowWindow( g_hWnd, nCmdShow );

   UpdateWindow( g_hWnd );

   return TRUE;

}

 

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)

{

       int wmId, wmEvent;

 

       switch (message)

       {

       case WM_CREATE:

              OnCreate( hWnd );

              break;

       case WM_COMMAND:

              wmId    = LOWORD(wParam);

              wmEvent = HIWORD(wParam);

              switch (wmId)

              {

              case IDM_EXIT:

                     DestroyWindow(hWnd);

                     break;

              default:

                     return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);

              }

              break;

       case WM_SIZE:

              SetProjMatrix( LOWORD( lParam ), HIWORD( lParam ) );

              break;

       case WM_DESTROY:

              ReleaseD3D();

              PostQuitMessage(0);

              break;

       default:

              return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);

       }

       return 0;

}

 

void OnCreate( HWND hWnd )

{

       g_hWnd = hWnd;

       InitD3D();

       CreateObject();

}

 

void ReleaseD3D( void )

{

}

 

 

HRESULT InitD3D( void )

{

       return S_OK;

}

 

void BeforePaint( void )

{

}

 

HRESULT CreateObject( void )

{

       return S_OK;

}

 

void OnIdle( void )

{

}

 

HRESULT SetModalMatrix( void )

{

       return S_OK;

}

 

HRESULT SetProjMatrix( WORD wWidth, WORD wHeight )

{

       return S_OK;

}

 

    上面的代码仅是一个框架,仔细研究过上篇文章的朋友应该非常清楚这些代码的含意,不过我还是需要大至讲解一下。 InitInstance函数中,初始化程序实例的开始,我们将该实例的句柄放到全局变量中去,以便以后使用:

 

g_hInst = hInstance;

 

    在创建窗体时,我并没有直接将CreateWindow的返回值——创建成功的窗体句柄赋给全局变量g_hWnd,因为CreateWindow函数在执行中会引发几个消息,其中有WM_CREATE,在这个消息的处理函数中OnCreate中,我执行了下面的语句:

 

g_hWnd = hWnd;

 

    这样,我们就可以早一点用到g_hWnd了。SetProjMatrix是设置投影矩阵的,投影矩形仅受窗口纵横比影响,所以在WM_SIZE事件时调用时就可以了。而SetModalMatrix是设置模型矩阵的,也就是眼睛点和视点之类的东东,所以它一定要在Rander的时候,准确的说是在Render之前执行。InitD3D在窗体创建时调用,用于初始化D3D设备。CreateObjectInitD3D一样是初始化函数,它用于创建三维对象。至于消息循环的机制,请参阅OpenGL入门文章。

 

    下面我们来填写代码,首先是初始化,我们在InitD3D函数里填写下面的代码:

g_pD3D = Direct3DCreate9( D3D_SDK_VERSION );

if( NULL == g_pD3D )

{

       return E_FAIL;

}

 

D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS d3dpp;

ZeroMemory( &d3dpp, sizeof(d3dpp) );

d3dpp.Windowed = TRUE;

d3dpp.SwapEffect = D3DSWAPEFFECT_DISCARD;

d3dpp.BackBufferFormat = D3DFMT_A8R8G8B8;

 

g_pD3D->CreateDevice( D3DADAPTER_DEFAULT, D3DDEVTYPE_HAL, g_hWnd,

              D3DCREATE_HARDWARE_VERTEXPROCESSING | D3DCREATE_PUREDEVICE,

              &d3dpp, &g_pd3dDevice );

g_pd3dDevice->SetRenderState( D3DRS_LIGHTING, TRUE );

g_pd3dDevice->SetRenderState( D3DRS_AMBIENT,

              D3DCOLOR_COLORVALUE( 0.3f, 0.3f, 0.3f, 1.0 ) );

g_pd3dDevice->LightEnable( 0, TRUE);

 

D3DMATERIAL9 mtrl;

ZeroMemory( &mtrl, sizeof(mtrl) );

mtrl.Diffuse.r = mtrl.Ambient.r = 140.0f / 255.0f;

mtrl.Diffuse.g = mtrl.Ambient.g = 200.0f / 255.0f;

mtrl.Diffuse.b = mtrl.Ambient.b = 255.0f / 255.0f;

mtrl.Diffuse.a = mtrl.Ambient.a = 1.0f;

g_pd3dDevice->SetMaterial( &mtrl );

return S_OK;

 

    Direct3DCreate9函数为我们创建了一个D3D接口指针,并将接口指针返回到全局变量中保存起来,参数必须为D3D_SDK_VERSIOND3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS是一个结构体,它就像OpenGL中的PixelFormat一样,是创建时指定设备的一些属性的。

 

d3dpp.Windowed = TRUE;    // 设备是窗口设备而不是全屏

d3dpp.SwapEffect = D3DSWAPEFFECT_DISCARD;        // 翻转缓冲区时不改动后台缓冲

d3dpp.BackBufferFormat = D3DFMT_A8R8G8B8;    // ARGB颜色模式

 

在这之后,我们就可以调用CreateDevice来创建设备了,第一个参数指定使用主显示驱动,第二个参数指定该设备是否使用硬件来处理显示,第三个参数当然是你的窗体句柄,第四个参数如果指定D3DCREATE_HARDWARE_VERTEXPROCESSING | D3DCREATE_PUREDEVICE效率会提高不少。

 

g_pd3dDevice->SetRenderState( D3DRS_LIGHTING, TRUE );

g_pd3dDevice->SetRenderState( D3DRS_AMBIENT,

       D3DCOLOR_COLORVALUE( 0.6f, 0.6f, 0.6f, 1.0 ) );

 

    这两句用于打开灯光和设置环境光照颜色。接着我设置了材质:

 

mtrl.Diffuse.r = mtrl.Ambient.r = 140.0f / 255.0f;

mtrl.Diffuse.g = mtrl.Ambient.g = 200.0f / 255.0f;

mtrl.Diffuse.b = mtrl.Ambient.b = 255.0f / 255.0f;

mtrl.Diffuse.a = mtrl.Ambient.a = 1.0f;

 

   为了和上一篇的例程做对比,我使用了相同的材质。当CreateDevice执行成功后,我们就该创建基于D3D的三维物体了。

 

D3DVECTOR SrcBox[] = {

       { 5.0f,  5.0f, 0.0f },  { 5.0f,  5.0f, 10.0f },

       { 5.0f, -5.0f, 0.0f },  { 5.0f, -5.0f, 10.0f },

       {-5.0f, -5.0f, 0.0f },  {-5.0f, -5.0f, 10.0f },

       {-5.0f,  5.0f, 0.0f },  {-5.0f,  5.0f, 10.0f },

};

WORD wIndex[] ={

       0, 4, 6,  0, 2, 4,

       0, 6, 7,  0, 7, 1,

       0, 3, 2,  0, 1, 3,

       5, 2, 3,  5, 4, 2,

       5, 6, 4,  5, 7, 6,

       5, 1, 7,  5, 3, 1,

};

 

    这些数据你熟悉吗?对了,还是上一篇里的数据,要额外说明的是D3D为我们准备了很好用的结构体D3DVECTOR,封装了三维座标的XYZ。我们还需要再定义一个我们自己的结构体来存放我们的三维座标信息:

 

struct CUSTOMVERTEX

{

    D3DVECTOR pos;

    D3DVECTOR normal;

};

 

    第一个成员pos用来存储顶点座标数据,第二个成员normal用来存储这个点所在平面的法向量——这个概念我在上一篇讲过的。和OpenGL一样,我们同样需要按索引序展开顶点数组:

 

CUSTOMVERTEX ExpandBox[sizeof(wIndex) / sizeof(WORD)];

for ( int i = 0; i < 36; i++ )

{

       ExpandBox[i].pos = SrcBox[ wIndex[i] ];

}

 

然后用下面的代码为顶点计算法向量,CalcNormal函数的源代码在上一篇里有。

 

for ( i = 0; i < 12; i++ )

{

       D3DVECTOR Tri[3];

       Tri[0] = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].pos;

       Tri[1] = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 1 ].pos;

       Tri[2] = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 2 ].pos;

       ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal.x = 0.0f;

       ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal.y = 0.0f;

       ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal.z = 1.0f;

       CalcNormal( Tri, &(ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal) );

       ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 1 ].normal = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal;

       ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 2 ].normal = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal;

}

 

    在这里我需要花点篇幅讲一个概念,一个仅在D3D中存在的概念FVFD3D在处理显示数据时和OpenGL的方式不大一样,OpenGL是指定独立的数组,比如VertexBufferIndexBufferNormalBuffer等,而D3D是把每一个顶点的这些数据放在一起,组成一个单元进行处理,也就是说只有一个数组,而在数组的每一个元素中都包括了单个顶点的所有数据,所以他被称为Flexible Vertex Format,我刚才定义的结构体CUSTOMVERTEX也就是做为数组的一个单元。每一个单元可以包含你所需要的信息,比如你只需要顶点座标数据和颜色,那么你只需要对那个结构体稍加修改就可以了,但是怎么让D3D 知道你的结构体里包含哪些数据呢?当然,我们可以在CreateVertexBuffer的时候指定一个参数来告诉D3DD3DFVF_XYZ | D3DFVF_NORMAL,在很多地方我们都可能用到这个值,所以为了方便使用和维护我们定义一个宏来表示它:

 

#define D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX ( D3DFVF_XYZ | D3DFVF_NORMAL )

 

    那么到这里你可以会问另一个问题,也许D3D可以知道我们的元素里包含顶点的哪些数据,但D3D又是怎样得知这些数据在结构体里,也就是在内存中的排列顺序的呢?很不幸,D3D无法得知你的排列顺序,但D3D指定了这些数据的排列顺序,比如法向量一定在顶点后面,而颜色又一定要放在法向量后面。关于这个排列顺序表你得去看看MSDN里关于Vertex Formats的详细说明了。下面我们来创建顶点数组:

 

if( FAILED( g_pd3dDevice->CreateVertexBuffer( sizeof(ExpandBox),

        0, D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX, D3DPOOL_DEFAULT, &g_pVB, NULL ) ) )

{

       return E_FAIL;

}

 

    这些参数上面都提到过,相信你一看就会明白,我就不多说了。怎样把我们的方盒数据存储进这创建好的顶点缓冲区呢?DirectX有自己的内存管理方式,这一点我在前面写的一篇《Winamp详解》里提到过,也就是LockUnLock的模式:

 

VOID* pVertices;

if( FAILED( g_pVB->Lock( 0, sizeof(ExpandBox), (void**)&pVertices, 0 ) ) )

       return E_FAIL;

MoveMemory( pVertices, ExpandBox, sizeof(ExpandBox) );

g_pVB->Unlock();

 

    OpenGL一样,在初始化工作结束后,必须要做的另一件事就是设置矩阵,首先是投影矩阵,我们把这些代码加到SetProjMatrix函数中去:

 

D3DXMATRIX matProj;

D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH( &matProj, D3DX_PI/4, (float)wWidth / (float)wHeight, 1.0f, 100.0f );

return g_pd3dDevice->SetTransform( D3DTS_PROJECTION, &matProj );

 

    然后是视图矩阵,把下面的代码加到SetModalMatrix

 

static float fRadius = 0.5f;

fRadius -= 0.003f;

if ( fRadius < 0)

{

       fRadius = D3DX_PI * 2 ;

}

D3DXMATRIX matWorld;

D3DXMatrixRotationZ( &matWorld, 0.0f  );

if ( FAILED( g_pd3dDevice->SetTransform( D3DTS_WORLD, &matWorld ) ) )

{

       return E_FAIL;

}

D3DXMATRIX matView;

D3DXMatrixLookAtLH( &matView, &D3DXVECTOR3( cosf( fRadius ) * 40.0f, sinf( fRadius ) * 40.0f, 30.0 ), &D3DXVECTOR3( 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f ), &D3DXVECTOR3( 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f ) );

g_pd3dDevice->SetTransform( D3DTS_VIEW, &matView );

return S_OK;

 

    我想我不说你也可以理解这些代码的含义,是不是和OpenGL非常相似呢?好的,现在一切准备工作就续,现在我们可以开始绘制方盒了。找到OnIdel处理函数,然后在这里添加下面的代码:

 

if ( g_pd3dDevice != NULL )

{

       g_pd3dDevice->Clear( 0, NULL, D3DCLEAR_TARGET, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,200), 1.0f, 0 );

       if ( SUCCEEDED( g_pd3dDevice->BeginScene() ) )

       {

              BeforePaint();

              if ( FAILED( SetModalMatrix() ) )

              {

                     return;

              }

              g_pd3dDevice->SetStreamSource( 0, g_pVB, 0, sizeof(CUSTOMVERTEX) );

              g_pd3dDevice->SetFVF( D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX );

              g_pd3dDevice->DrawPrimitive( D3DPT_TRIANGLELIST, 0, 12 );

              g_pd3dDevice->EndScene();

              g_pd3dDevice->Present( NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL );

       }

}

 

    g_pd3dDevice->Clear相当于glClear g_pd3dDevice->BeginSceneg_pd3dDevice->EndScene 相当于glBeginglEndg_pd3dDevice->SetStreamSource 相当于glSet**Pointerg_pd3dDevice->DrawPrimitive 相当于glDrawArrayg_pd3dDevice->Present相当于SwapBuffer,这里和OpenGL的不同之处在于D3D在这里要设备FVF,一个很简单的过程:

 

g_pd3dDevice->SetFVF( D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX );

 

    另外,D3D的背景色是在Clear的时候指定的。现在你可以运行你的程序了,但是你会发现,盒子是黑色的一片,那是因为你没有打开任何光源。而OpenGL在没有打开任何光源时物体是纯白色的,呵呵,具有一定的迷惑性哦~现在我们来打开一个灯,来照亮这个物体。就在BeforePaint里:

 

D3DLIGHT9 light;

ZeroMemory( &light, sizeof(light) );

light.Position = D3DXVECTOR3( 30.0f, 30.0f, 30.0f );

light.Attenuation1 = 0.05f;

light.Diffuse.r = 1.0f;

light.Diffuse.g = 1.0f;

light.Diffuse.b = 1.0f;

light.Range = 1000.0f;

light.Type = D3DLIGHT_POINT;

g_pd3dDevice->SetLight( 0, &light );

g_pd3dDevice->LightEnable( 0, TRUE);

 

    为什么要放在BeforePaint里呢?因为我们在后面还可以实现动态光影的效果,也就是让光源动起来。这里要格外注意的时,这个顶不是方向光源,是一个点光源,D3DLIGHT_POINT,它的光是没有方向,从座标点向四周任何方向发散的,他也具有衰减性,你可以设置三个衰减分量,在D3D里的衰减公式是:Atten = 1 / (  att0 + att1 * d + att2 * d * d )所以,当你的三个衰减值都为0时,就会出错。在这里我们用到了att1,让它等于0.05,很小的值对吗?越小表示衰减越小,光照也就越强。

 

 

现在你的代码应该是这样样子:

 

#include "stdafx.h"

#include "D3DTest.h"

#define MAX_LOADSTRING 100

#define D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX ( D3DFVF_XYZ | D3DFVF_NORMAL )

 

struct CUSTOMVERTEX

{

    D3DVECTOR pos;

    D3DVECTOR normal;

};

 

HINSTANCE g_hInst;

HWND g_hWnd;

IDirect3D9 *g_pD3D;

IDirect3DDevice9 *g_pd3dDevice;

IDirect3DVertexBuffer9 *g_pVB;

 

TCHAR szTitle[MAX_LOADSTRING];

TCHAR szWindowClass[MAX_LOADSTRING];

 

ATOM                          MyRegisterClass(HINSTANCE hInstance);

BOOL                          InitInstance(HINSTANCE, int);

LRESULT CALLBACK  WndProc(HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);

LRESULT CALLBACK  About(HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);

void OnIdle( void );

void OnCreate( HWND hWnd );

HRESULT InitD3D( void );

HRESULT CreateObject( void );

void ReleaseD3D( void );

HRESULT SetModalMatrix( void );

HRESULT SetProjMatrix( WORD wWidth, WORD wHeight );

void BeforePaint( void );

 

void CalcNormal( const D3DVECTOR *pVertices, D3DVECTOR *pNormal )

{

       D3DVECTOR v1, v2;

       v1.x = pVertices[0].x - pVertices[1].x;

       v1.y = pVertices[0].y - pVertices[1].y;

       v1.z = pVertices[0].z - pVertices[1].z;

       v2.x = pVertices[1].x - pVertices[2].x;

       v2.y = pVertices[1].y - pVertices[2].y;

       v2.z = pVertices[1].z - pVertices[2].z;

       D3DXVECTOR3 Temp( v1.y * v2.z - v1.z * v2.y,

                                     v1.z * v2.x - v1.x * v2.z,

                                     v1.x * v2.y - v1.y * v2.x );

       D3DXVec3Normalize( (D3DXVECTOR3*)pNormal, &Temp );

}

 

class CTimer

{

public:

       CTimer()        {QueryPerformanceFrequency(&m_Frequency); Start();}

       void Start()     {QueryPerformanceCounter(&m_StartCount);}

       double     End()      {LARGE_INTEGER CurrentCount;QueryPerformanceCounter(&CurrentCount);return double(CurrentCount.LowPart - m_StartCount.LowPart) / (double)m_Frequency.LowPart;}

private:

       LARGE_INTEGER m_Frequency;

       LARGE_INTEGER m_StartCount;

};

 

 

int APIENTRY _tWinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance,

                     HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,

                     LPTSTR    lpCmdLine,

                     int       nCmdShow)

{

       MSG msg;

       HACCEL hAccelTable;

 

       LoadString(hInstance, IDS_APP_TITLE, szTitle, MAX_LOADSTRING);

       LoadString(hInstance, IDC_D3DTEST, szWindowClass, MAX_LOADSTRING);

       MyRegisterClass(hInstance);

 

       if (!InitInstance (hInstance, nCmdShow))

              return FALSE;

 

       hAccelTable = LoadAccelerators(hInstance, (LPCTSTR)IDC_D3DTEST);

 

       while ( true )

       {

              if ( PeekMessage( &msg, NULL, 0, 0, PM_REMOVE ) )

              {

                     if (!TranslateAccelerator(msg.hwnd, hAccelTable, &msg))

                     {

                            TranslateMessage(&msg);

                            DispatchMessage(&msg);

                     }

                     continue;

              }

              if ( WM_QUIT == msg.message )

                     break;

              OnIdle();

       }

 

    UnregisterClass( szWindowClass, g_hInst );

 

       return (int)msg.wParam;

}

 

ATOM MyRegisterClass( HINSTANCE hInstance )

{

       WNDCLASSEX wcex;

 

       wcex.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);

 

       wcex.style                    = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;

       wcex.lpfnWndProc       = (WNDPROC)WndProc;

       wcex.cbClsExtra           = 0;

       wcex.cbWndExtra         = 0;

       wcex.hInstance             = hInstance;

       wcex.hIcon                  = LoadIcon(hInstance, (LPCTSTR)IDI_D3DTEST);

       wcex.hCursor        = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW);

       wcex.hbrBackground     = (HBRUSH)(COLOR_WINDOW+1);

       wcex.lpszMenuName     = (LPCTSTR)IDC_D3DTEST;

       wcex.lpszClassName     = szWindowClass;

       wcex.hIconSm             = LoadIcon(wcex.hInstance, (LPCTSTR)IDI_SMALL);

 

       return RegisterClassEx(&wcex);

}

 

BOOL InitInstance( HINSTANCE hInstance, int nCmdShow )

{

   g_hInst = hInstance;

   CreateWindow( szWindowClass, szTitle, WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW,

      CW_USEDEFAULT, 0, CW_USEDEFAULT, 0, NULL, NULL, hInstance, NULL );

   if ( !g_hWnd )

   {

      return FALSE;

   }

   ShowWindow( g_hWnd, nCmdShow );

   UpdateWindow( g_hWnd );

   return TRUE;

}

 

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)

{

       int wmId, wmEvent;

 

       switch (message)

       {

       case WM_CREATE:

              OnCreate( hWnd );

              break;

       case WM_COMMAND:

              wmId    = LOWORD(wParam);

              wmEvent = HIWORD(wParam);

              switch (wmId)

              {

              case IDM_EXIT:

                     DestroyWindow(hWnd);

                     break;

              default:

                     return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);

              }

              break;

       case WM_SIZE:

              SetProjMatrix( LOWORD( lParam ), HIWORD( lParam ) );

              break;

       case WM_DESTROY:

              ReleaseD3D();

              PostQuitMessage(0);

              break;

       default:

              return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);

       }

       return 0;

}

 

void OnCreate( HWND hWnd )

{

       g_hWnd = hWnd;

       InitD3D();

       CreateObject();

}

 

void ReleaseD3D( void )

{

       if( g_pVB != NULL )

       {

              g_pVB->Release();

       }

       if( g_pd3dDevice != NULL )

       {

              g_pd3dDevice->Release();

       }

       if( g_pD3D != NULL )

       {

              g_pD3D->Release();

       }

}

 

 

HRESULT InitD3D( void )

{

       g_pD3D = Direct3DCreate9( D3D_SDK_VERSION );

       D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS d3dpp;

       ZeroMemory( &d3dpp, sizeof(d3dpp) );

       d3dpp.Windowed = TRUE;

       d3dpp.SwapEffect = D3DSWAPEFFECT_DISCARD;

       d3dpp.BackBufferFormat = D3DFMT_A8R8G8B8;

 

       g_pD3D->CreateDevice( D3DADAPTER_DEFAULT, D3DDEVTYPE_HAL, g_hWnd,

              D3DCREATE_HARDWARE_VERTEXPROCESSING | D3DCREATE_PUREDEVICE,

              &d3dpp, &g_pd3dDevice );

       g_pd3dDevice->SetRenderState( D3DRS_LIGHTING, TRUE );

       g_pd3dDevice->SetRenderState( D3DRS_AMBIENT,

              D3DCOLOR_COLORVALUE( 0.6f, 0.6f, 0.6f, 1.0 ) );

       g_pd3dDevice->LightEnable( 0, TRUE);

 

       D3DMATERIAL9 mtrl;

       ZeroMemory( &mtrl, sizeof(mtrl) );

       mtrl.Diffuse.r = mtrl.Ambient.r = 140.0f / 255.0f;

       mtrl.Diffuse.g = mtrl.Ambient.g = 200.0f / 255.0f;

       mtrl.Diffuse.b = mtrl.Ambient.b = 255.0f / 255.0f;

       mtrl.Diffuse.a = mtrl.Ambient.a = 1.0f;

       g_pd3dDevice->SetMaterial( &mtrl );

       return S_OK;

}

 

void BeforePaint( void )

{

       D3DLIGHT9 light;

       ZeroMemory( &light, sizeof(light) );

       light.Position = D3DXVECTOR3( 30.0f, 30.0f, 30.0f );

       light.Attenuation1 = 0.05f;

       light.Diffuse.r = 1.0f;

       light.Diffuse.g = 1.0f;

       light.Diffuse.b = 1.0f;

       light.Range = 1000.0f;

       light.Type = D3DLIGHT_POINT;

       g_pd3dDevice->SetLight( 0, &light );

       g_pd3dDevice->LightEnable( 0, TRUE);

}

 

HRESULT CreateObject( void )

{

       D3DVECTOR SrcBox[] = {

              { 5.0f,  5.0f, 0.0f },  { 5.0f,  5.0f, 10.0f },

              { 5.0f, -5.0f, 0.0f },  { 5.0f, -5.0f, 10.0f },

              {-5.0f, -5.0f, 0.0f },  {-5.0f, -5.0f, 10.0f },

              {-5.0f,  5.0f, 0.0f },  {-5.0f,  5.0f, 10.0f },

       };

       WORD wIndex[] ={

              0, 4, 6,  0, 2, 4,

              0, 6, 7,  0, 7, 1,

              0, 3, 2,  0, 1, 3,

              5, 2, 3,  5, 4, 2,

              5, 6, 4,  5, 7, 6,

              5, 1, 7,  5, 3, 1,

       };

       CUSTOMVERTEX ExpandBox[sizeof(wIndex) / sizeof(WORD)];

 

       for ( int i = 0; i < 36; i++ )

              ExpandBox[i].pos = SrcBox[ wIndex[i] ];

 

       for ( i = 0; i < 12; i++ )

       {

              D3DVECTOR Tri[3];

              Tri[0] = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].pos;

              Tri[1] = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 1 ].pos;

              Tri[2] = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 2 ].pos;

              ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal.x = 0.0f;

              ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal.y = 0.0f;

              ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal.z = 1.0f;

              CalcNormal( Tri, &(ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal) );

              ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 1 ].normal = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal;

              ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 2 ].normal = ExpandBox[ i * 3 + 0 ].normal;

       }

       g_pd3dDevice->CreateVertexBuffer( sizeof(ExpandBox),

         0, D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX, D3DPOOL_DEFAULT, &g_pVB, NULL );

       VOID* pVertices;

       g_pVB->Lock( 0, sizeof(ExpandBox), (void**)&pVertices, 0 );

       MoveMemory( pVertices, ExpandBox, sizeof(ExpandBox) );

       g_pVB->Unlock();

       return S_OK;

}

 

void OnIdle( void )

{

       static CTimer t;

       static double dt = t.End();

       double temp = t.End();

       char szValue[256];

       sprintf( szValue, "当前帧率:%f", 1 / ( temp - dt ) );

       SetWindowText( g_hWnd, szValue );

       dt = temp;

       if ( g_pd3dDevice != NULL )

       {

              g_pd3dDevice->Clear( 0, NULL, D3DCLEAR_TARGET, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,200), 1.0f, 0 );

              if ( SUCCEEDED( g_pd3dDevice->BeginScene() ) )

              {

                     BeforePaint();

                     if ( FAILED( SetModalMatrix() ) )

                     {

                            return;

                     }

                     g_pd3dDevice->SetStreamSource( 0, g_pVB, 0, sizeof(CUSTOMVERTEX) );

                     g_pd3dDevice->SetFVF( D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX );

                     g_pd3dDevice->DrawPrimitive( D3DPT_TRIANGLELIST, 0, 12 );

                     g_pd3dDevice->EndScene();

                     g_pd3dDevice->Present( NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL );

              }

       }

}

 

HRESULT SetModalMatrix( void )

{

       static float fRadius = 0.5f;

       fRadius -= 0.003f;

       if ( fRadius < 0)

       {

              fRadius = D3DX_PI * 2 ;

       }

       D3DXMATRIX matWorld;

       D3DXMatrixRotationZ( &matWorld, 0.0f  );

       if ( FAILED( g_pd3dDevice->SetTransform( D3DTS_WORLD, &matWorld ) ) )

       {

              return E_FAIL;

       }

       D3DXMATRIX matView;

       D3DXMatrixLookAtLH( &matView, &D3DXVECTOR3( cosf( fRadius ) * 40.0f, sinf( fRadius ) * 40.0f, 30.0 ),

                                                        &D3DXVECTOR3( 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f ),

                                                        &D3DXVECTOR3( 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f ) );

       g_pd3dDevice->SetTransform( D3DTS_VIEW, &matView );

 

       return S_OK;

}

 

HRESULT SetProjMatrix( WORD wWidth, WORD wHeight )

{

       D3DXMATRIX matProj;

       D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH( &matProj, D3DX_PI/4, (float)wWidth / (float)wHeight, 1.0f, 100.0f );

       return g_pd3dDevice->SetTransform( D3DTS_PROJECTION, &matProj );

}

 

    看看和OpenGL做出来的哪个效果更好一些呢?我想使用D3D来做这些事会很方便吧。这一篇文章拖了很久,国庆长假是一个主要原因,当然还有在单位的工作很忙之类的因素,总而言之现在只好在这里向大家说抱歉。不过我要在此感谢我们的大版主ckackasteedhorse,是他们一直在默默的认真审核着一个又一个的FAQ,让我能够腾出空闲来写一点东东。另外要感谢李学峰,我们公司的OpenGL专家,顾问级人物,是他为我的上篇文章提供了强大有力的技术技持和保障,还有感谢我的小狗狗Anny,带给我无尽的欢乐;当然最需要感谢的还是大家,是你们的精神力量支持着我继续着写作。

 

                       Creamdog20031010日晚上2146分完成

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