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集成与构建指南(4)

发表于2004/3/1 10:10:00  699人阅读

1          构建基础知识

1.1         Ant构建脚本

自动化构建的核心是表达构件间依赖关系和构建步骤的脚本,Make工具使用makefile,而Ant使用了基于XML格式的缺省文件名为Build.Xml的配置文件。

1.1.1          Ant项目配置文件

Ant配置文件描述了一个构建项目(project),它由一些属性定义(property)和一个目标树(target tree)组成;目标代表了一个期望的构建结果(例如生成一个链接好的可执行文件),并表述了其依赖的其它目标,常见的构建目标有初始化(Init)、编译(Compile)、单元测试(Test)、安装(Install)、清除(Clean)等;每个目标包含了实现它而将要执行的任务(task),Ant支持的任务种类非常丰富,例如源码编译、文件拷贝、执行命令行操作等。Ant还提供一种非常重要的任务就是执行其它的项目配置文件,使得多个构建项目的批处理成为可能。

1.1.2       Ant配置文件示例

下面是一个Ant项目的配置文件示例:

 

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<project name="Improve-Install" default="InstallAll" basedir=".">

<description >

         Build file for all Improve library project

</description>

 

         <!-- task and type extension -->

         <taskdef resource="cpptasks.tasks"/>

         <typedef resource="cpptasks.types"/>

 

         <taskdef resource="net/sf/antcontrib/antcontrib.properties"/>

 

         <!-- Properties -->

         <property environment="sys_env"/>

         <property name="proj.root" location="../."/>

         <target name="-Init">

                   <condition property="cc" value="${mswin32-compiler}">

                            <os family="windows"/>

                   </condition>

                   <condition property="cc" value="gcc">

                            <os family="unix"/>

                   </condition>

                   <echo message="${ant.project.name}: Init Complete"/>

         </target>

        

         <target name="Clean" depends="-Init"

                            description="Clean the temporal building space">

                   <!-- Delete all files in temporal build space -->

                   <delete includeEmptyDirs="true" >

                            <fileset dir="${tgt.bin}" includes="objs/*, objs_d/*" defaultexcludes="false"/>

                   </delete>

                   <delete includeEmptyDirs="true" >

                            <fileset dir="${tgt.lib}" includes="objs/*, objs_d" defaultexcludes="false"/>

                   </delete>

                   <echo message="${ant.project.name}: Clean buildspace Complete"/>

         </target>

 

         <target name="AutoBuild" depends="-Init, -Prep" description="AutoBuild all source to get bin out">

                   <mkdir dir="${tgt.lib}/objs_d"/>

                   <mkdir dir="${tgt.lib}/objs"/>

                   <if>

                            <equals arg1="${cc}" arg2="msvc"/>

                   <then>

                            <cc name="${cc}" objdir="${tgt.lib}/objs_d" outfile="${tgt.lib}/improve_debug" outtype="static"

                                     exceptions="true" multithreaded="true" runtime="dynamic" debug="true">

                                     <compiler extends="${cc}-compiler">

                                               <includepath path="${tgt.interface}"/>

                                               <includepath path="${getenv.BOOST_ROOT}/include"/>

                                               <includepath path="${getenv.CPPUNIT_ROOT}/include"/>

                                               <defineset >

                                                        <define name="WIN32"/>

                                                        <define name="_WINDOWS"/>

                                               </defineset>

                                               <compilerarg value="/W3"/>

                                               <compilerarg value="/GR"/>

                                               <compilerarg value="/O2"/>

                                     </compiler>

                                     <linker extends="${cc}-linker">

                                               <linkerarg value="/machine:I386"/>

                                               <!--fileset dir="${getenv.LIBS_ROOT}/lib" includes="3d_party.*"/-->

                                     </linker>

                                     <fileset dir="${tgt.src}">

                                               <include name="**/*.cpp"/>

                                               <include name="**/*.c"/>

                                               <exclude name="exception_ex.*"/>

                                     </fileset>

                            </cc>

                           

                   <echo message="${ant.project.name}: AutoBuild Complete"/>

         </target>

 

 

         <target name="Test" depends="-Init, TestBuild" description="Perform acception testing">

                   <exec executable="test_main_debug.exe" dir="${tgt.bin}"

                                     failonerror="true" vmlauncher="false" os="Windows 2000">

                            <env key="Path" path="${getenv.Path};${getenv.CPPUNIT_ROOT}/lib;${getenv.BOOST_ROOT}/lib"/>

                   </exec>

                   <echo message="test_main.exe Debug Version Testing Pass"/>

                   <exec executable="test_main.exe" dir="${tgt.bin}"

                                     failonerror="true" vmlauncher="false" os="Windows 2000">

                            <env key="Path" path="${getenv.Path};${getenv.CPPUNIT_ROOT}/lib;${getenv.BOOST_ROOT}/lib"/>

                   </exec>

                   <echo message="test_main.exe Release Version Testing Pass"/>

                   <echo message="${ant.project.name}: Testing Complete"/>

         </target>

        

 

         <target name="InstallAll"

                            depends="CleanAll, AutoBuild, Install, Test"

                            description="Make a clean (re)install and test">

                   <echo message="${ant.project.name}: Install/Reinstall Complete"/>

         </target>

 

</project>

 

在此Ant配置文件中定义了项目将引用的一些property,例如环境变量、项目的根目录路径、指定的编译器等;项目的缺省构建目标为InstallAll,它通过依赖定义,使得初始化(Init)、清除(CleanAll)、编译(AutoBuild)、安装(Install)、测试(Test)等目标依次执行;AutoBuild目标执行的cc任务,将对源码进行编译,并通过includepath设置了编译头文件的查找路径,通过linker段指定了需链接的库3d_party.lib

本项目中各Ant配置文件的具体配置和使用,请参见Ant用户手册等参考资料,和阅读Ant配置文件本身内容。

1.1.3       Ant执行示例

Ant在命令行下执行的示例:

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