CSDN博客

img jiangtao
博客专家

那么到底什么是一个系统呢?(软工系列文章之五)

发表于2001/2/10 9:01:00  1993人阅读

分类: 软件工程

 

那么到底什么是一个系统呢?
What is a System Anyway?
By Russ Finney

翻译:方雨

 
一个系统是一套为完成一项业务而设计的的手动或者自动化过程。一些过程可
能支持每月的信息收集,其他的可能用于计算,总结,以及报告新东西,还有
一些可能集中于从已知的一系列取舍方法中选取,每个过程都蕴涵一系列必要
的决定。
一个系统可以是全手动的过程,完全自动化的过程,或者两者兼有的。
但是,所有的系统在任一时刻,看起来都是来自于一个或几个一下的类型

传统机构型
在很多公司内部开发的系统具有很长的运作历史,稳定的产品或者服务,
更倾向于基于缓慢升级的业务过程。在这些公司内,手动和自动混和的实际系统
可能存在,随着时间推移,它会变成制度化。如果这是一个大的,机构臃肿的
公司,大部分业务客户端会逐渐集中于一些小的个人任务,只有一些少数的
老雇员会确实具有整个的大轮廓的印象。

经常调整型
很多公司的商务活动由政府实体进行调控,他们可能更多的会有一些对多变的
规则,规章适应并及时反应的系统,过程,和个人。依赖于调整的节奏,以及提前获得的
通知的数量,系统可能顺利的升级至新的制度环境,或者他们可能降级至多分块的,
临时的不确定的解决方案。
讲究原则型
一些系统只是基于简单的,已接受的业务原则。一个已经建立的,被很好界定的
方法执行已存在的业务,所有的公司都遵循这个模式。审计(G/L,A/P,A/R,等等),
薪酬制度,财务报表系统都适于这个范畴。既然不同公司,工厂之间的运行的系统
的基本方法只有很小的区别,大量的非自身独有的(off the self 的意思,用英文
来解释就是available without self,or on the other envirement--方雨)自动化替代方案
可以适应于从最大的,到最小的企事业实体。除了有彻底的业务原则改变发生,这些系统
是所有之中最稳定的,最少动态改变的。往往一个公司从他们当前的系统中“成长”起来,
这种情况会引发改变的发生。
工业制造型
每个工业企业具有独有的特点,这些特点确定了组织进行业务活动的方法和途径。
这些工业化实践活动在公司内升级的系统中得到具体化。这些系统也更可能
被最大程度的监护,因为他们被认为是代表一个全新的,高级的系统。任何类型的
显著的组织化,过程化或者系统化的升级提供了更高的质量,更低的成本,或者更好的
客户服务。能使公司具有重要的竞争的武器。对这种类型的系统的改变不存在细微的
问题的。既然他们代表着企业的生命周期。
完全创新型
最后一类系统是这些从革新中诞生的。他们在一个新的组织形成时或者新的服务提供
时建立。当这些系统开发并升级时,必须首先意识到整个的短周期的冒险,长周期的
受益是整个组织首先要考虑的问题。既然业务流程的创建,以及随之的系统架构的创建
趋向于“仓促”而就,公司更应该起用尽可能多的专家和有经验的人来参与整个过程。
这保证为现在的业务和以后的增长建立一个坚实的基础。

理解历史,特点,和一个特殊的新的,或者已经存在的系统是业务分析的重要的前提。


系统实施和支持的要求在以上的每种情况下都有不同。业务分析和系统设计必须敏锐

What is a System Anyway?
By Russ Finney
 
A system is a set of manual and automated procedures devised for conducting
business. Some procedures may support monthly information gathering, others may
consist of calculations, summarizations, and report creation, and still others
may center on picking from a series of known alternatives, each with a
respective set of required decisions. A system can be a totally manual process,
a completely automated process, or a combination somewhere in between. But all
systems at one time or another seem to be rooted in one or more of the following
sources:
 
Tradition
 
Systems which are developed within companies with long operating histories and
stable product or service lines, tend to be based on slowly evolving business
procedures. Within these companies, a mix of manual and automated practices may
exist which, over time, become "institutionalized". If the company is large and
bureaucratic, the masses of business clients become focused on small
individualized tasks, and only a handful of long term employees may really have
any idea of the "big picture" of what is really occurring.
 
Regulations
 
Companies which have their business practices regulated by governmental
entities, tend to have systems, procedures, and individuals who are adaptive and
reactive to the various changing rules and regulations. Depending on the
regulatory pace and the amount of advance notification given the company,
systems may either smoothly evolve to the new regulatory environment, or they
may degrade into "piecemeal" temporary solutions which seem to live on
indefinitely.
 
Principles
 
Some systems are simply based on accepted business principles. An established
and well defined way of conducting business exists, and all companies follow
this model. Accounting (G/L, A/P, A/R, etc.), payroll, and financial reporting
systems all fit into this category. Since only minor differences exist in the
fundamental way in which these systems operate from company to company, and from
industry to industry, numerous "off the self" automation alternatives exist
which suit the largest to the smallest business enterprise. Other than when
sweeping business principle changes occur, these systems are by far the most
stable and the least dynamic in the organization. Usually a company "grows" out
their current systems, and this is the situation which triggers change.
 
Industry Practices
 
Every industry has unique characteristics which define the organization's
approach to conducting business. These industry practices become embodied in the
systems which evolve within the company. These systems also tend to be the most
closely guarded since they are perceived to represent a competitive advantage.
Any type of significant organizational, procedural, or system advance which
provides higher quality, lower costs, or better customer service can give the
company an important competitive "edge". Changes to these types of systems are
no trivial matter since they represent the "lifeblood" of the enterprise.
 
Innovation
 
The last group of systems are those born from innovation. They are created when
a new organization is formed or a new product or service is offered. As these
systems develop and evolve, an awareness of the overall short term risks and the
long term benefits should be the prime concern of the organization. Since the
creation of the procedures and the associated system infrastructure tends to be
from "scratch", a company is well advised to harness as much expertise and
experience as possible during the process. This insures that a solid foundation
is created for both current business requirements as well support for future
growth needs.
 
Understanding both the history, character, and source of a particular new or
existing system is a vital requirement of the business analyst. System
implementation and support options vary in each of the above situations. The
business analyst and system designer must be keenly aware of the business
sensitivities surrounding system implementation or change effort. Understanding
these "roots" of the particular system is the first step.

的把握围绕着系统实施或者改变的业务意识。

0 0

我的热门文章

相关博文

img
取 消
img即使是一小步
也想与你分享
打开
img