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二客读书瘾勤 第1集

发表于2002/3/29 9:03:00  1791人阅读

Ark's Read-Engine #01: OOSC(2/e) (Part 0)
二客读书瘾勤 第1集:面向对象软件构造(第二版)(其之零)

书名:Object-Oriented Software Construction Second Edition
作者:Bertrand Meyer
出版:清华大学出版社/Prentice-Hall International,Inc.

[本书内容的组织]
在本书接下去的页码里,我们将纵览面向对象软件构造的方法和技巧。所述内容分为六大部分。

[第一部分:第1至2章]
第一部分是介绍和概览。本部分内容开始先探索了软件质量(software quality)的基础议题,接着又对软件方法(method)的主要技术特征作了一个简明的审视。这一部分基本上可以作为一本独立的小书自成一体,为心急的读者提供面向对象方法的第一印象。

[第二部分:第3至6章]
第二部分并不急着深入主题。本部分以“通往面向对象之路”为标题,花费笔墨描述一些方法学方面的问题,通过对这些问题的斟酌引入核心的面向对象概念。其叙述焦点放在模块性方面:如何为“大型(in-the-large)”系统之构造设计出令人满意的结构。最后介绍抽象数据型别(abstract data types)——对象技术(object technology)的数学基础——结束本部分内容。涉及到的数学知识比较初级,对数学“无胜于聊”的读者可以只满足于其中基本的概念,但其为你完全理解面向对象原理和论题提供了理论背景知识。

[第三部分:第7至18章]
第三部分是本书的技术核心。本部分逐个阐述面向对象方法中的核心技术组件:类(classes);对象(objects)及相关的运行期模型(run-time model);内存管理问题;泛型(genericity)和型别化(typing);契约式设计(design by contract),断言(assertions),异常(exceptions);继承(inheritance),多态(polymorphism)和动态绑定(dynamic binding)的相关概念,及其许多激动人心的应用。

[第四部分:第19至29章]
第四部分讨论方法学,特别强调分析与设计。本部分通过几个深入的案例研究,阐述一些基本的设计模式(design patterns),涵盖了诸如“如何寻求类(classes)”、“如何恰当的使用继承”以及“如何设计可复用程序库”等主要问题。一开始先讨论了对方法论学家以及其他陈述建议者的智力要求;继而又对面向对象开发的软件过程(生命周期模型)作了回顾,最后还讨论了如何在工业领域和大学里极尽所能的教授面向对象方法学。

[第五部分:第30至32章]
第五部分探索进阶的主题:并发性(concurrency),分布性(distribution),“客户-服务器”开发以及因特网;永续性(persistence),方案演化(schema evolution)以及面向对象数据库;设计具有现代(“GUI”)图形接口的交互式系统。

[第六部分:第33至35章]
第六部分纵览如何在各种语言和环境下进行面向对象实现(在某些情况下是模拟)。特别的,这部分包含了对主要面向对象语言的讨论,重点讨论Simula、Smalltalk、Objective-C、C++、Ada95以及Java;还评估了如何在诸如Fortran、Cobol、Pascal、C以及Ada等非面向对象语言中获得一些面向对象所带来的益处。

[第七部分:第36章]
第七部分(“把事情做对”)描述了一个开发环境,它更进一步体现了面向对象的解决方案,提供了一个集成工具集以支持本书中所论述的面向对象方法。

[附录一]
作为补充的参考内容,附录一展示了本书论及的一些重要可复用程序库的类(classes),为可复用软件的设计提供了参考模型。


Contents
[目录]

Preface v
Foreword to the second edition xiii
About the accompanying CD-ROM xiv
On the bibliography, Internet sources and exercises xv
Contents xvii

PART A: THE ISSUES 1
第一部分:基本议题

Chapter 1: Software quality 3
第1章:软件质量
1.1 EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FACTORS 3
1.2 A REVIEW OF EXTERNAL FACTORS 4
1.3 ABOUT SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE 17
1.4 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 19
1.5 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 19

Chapter 2: Criteria of object orientation 21
第2章:面向对象的准则
2.1 ON THE CRITERIA 21
2.2 METHOD AND LANGUAGE 22
2.3 IMPLEMENTATION AND ENVIRONMENT 31
2.4 LIBRARIES 33
2.5 FOR MORE SNEAK PREVIEW 34
2.6 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES AND OBJECT RESOURCES 34

PART B: THE ROAD TO OBJECT ORIENTATION 37
第二部分:通往面向对象之路

Chapter 3: Modularity 39
第3章:模块性
3.1 FIVE CRITERIA 40
3.2 FIVE RULES 46
3.3 FIVE PRINCIPLES 53
3.4 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 64
3.5 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 64
EXERCISES 65

Chapter 4: Approaches to reusability 67
第4章:通向可复用性的途径
4.1 THE GOALS OF REUSABILITY 68
4.2 WHAT SHOULD WE REUSE? 70
4.3 REPETITION IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 74
4.4 NON-TECHNICAL OBSTACLES 74
4.5 THE TECHNICAL PROBLEM 81
4.6 FIVE REQUIREMENTS ON MODULE STRUCTURES 83
4.7 TRADITIONAL MODULAR STRUCTURES 89
4.8 OVERLOADING AND GENERICITY 93
4.9 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 98
4.10 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 99

Chapter 5: Towards object technology 101
第5章:朝对象技术进发
5.1 THE INGREDIENTS OF COMPUTATION 101
5.2 FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSITION 103
5.3 OBJECT-BASED DECOMPOSITION 114
5.4 OBJECT-ORIENTED SOFTWARE CONSTRUCTION 116
5.5 ISSUES 117
5.6 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 119
5.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 119

Chapter 6: Abstract data types 121
第6章:抽象数据型别
6.1 CRITERIA 122
6.2 IMPLEMENTATION VARIATIONS 122
6.3 TOWARDS AN ABSTRACT VIEW OF OBJECTS 126
6.4 FORMALIZING THE SPECIFICATION 129
6.5 FROM ABSTRACT DATA TYPES TO CLASSES 142
6.6 BEYOND SOFTWARE 147
6.7 SUPPLEMENTARY TOPICS 148
6.8 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 159
6.9 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 160
EXERCISES 161

PART C: OBJECT-ORIENTED TECHNIQUES 163
第三部分:面向对象技术

Chapter 7: The static structure: classes 165
第7章:静态结构——类
7.1 OBJECTS ARE NOT THE SUBJECT 165
7.2 AVOIDING THE STANDARD CONFUSION 166
7.3 THE ROLE OF CLASSES 169
7.4 A UNIFORM TYPE SYSTEM 171
7.5 A SIMPLE CLASS 172
7.6 BASIC CONVENTIONS 177
7.7 THE OBJECT-ORIENTED STYLE OF COMPUTATION 181
7.8 SELECTIVE EXPORTS AND INFORMATION HIDING 191
7.9 PUTTING EVERYTHING TOGETHER 194
7.10 DISCUSSION 203
7.11 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 213
7.12 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 215
EXERCISES 216

Chapter 8: The run-time structure: objects 217
第8章:运行期结构——对象
8.1 OBJECTS 218
8.2 OBJECTS AS A MODELING TOOL 228
8.3 MANIPULATING OBJECTS AND REFERENCES 231
8.4 CREATION PROCEDURES 236
8.5 MORE ON REFERENCES 240
8.6 OPERATIONS ON REFERENCES 242
8.7 COMPOSITE OBJECTS AND EXPANDED TYPES 254
8.8 ATTACHMENT: REFERENCE AND VALUE SEMANTICS 261
8.9 DEALING WITH REFERENCES: BENEFITS AND DANGERS 265
8.10 DISCUSSION 270
8.11 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 276
8.12 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 277
EXERCISES 277

Chapter 9: Memory management 279
第9章:内存管理
9.1 WHAT HAPPENS TO OBJECTS 279
9.2 THE CASUAL APPROACH 291
9.3 RECLAIMING MEMORY: THE ISSUES 293
9.4 PROGRAMMER-CONTROLLED DEALLOCATION 294
9.5 THE COMPONENT-LEVEL APPROACH 297
9.6 AUTOMATIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT 301
9.7 REFERENCE COUNTING 302
9.8 GARBAGE COLLECTION 304
9.9 PRACTICAL ISSUES OF GARBAGE COLLECTION 309
9.10 AN ENVIRONMENT WITH MEMORY MANAGEMENT 312
9.11 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 315
9.12 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 315
EXERCISES 316

Chapter 10: Genericity 317
第10章:泛型
10.1 HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL TYPE GENERALIZATION 317
10.2 THE NEED FOR TYPE PARAMETERIZATION 318
10.3 GENERIC CLASSES 320
10.4 ARRAYS 325
10.5 THE COST OF GENERICITY 328
10.6 DISCUSSION: NOT DONE YET 329
10.7 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 329
10.8 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 330
EXERCISES 330

Chapter 11: Design by Contract: building reliable software 331
第11章:契约式设计——建立可靠的软件
11.1 BASIC RELIABILITY MECHANISMS 332
11.2 ABOUT SOFTWARE CORRECTNESS 333
11.3 EXPRESSING A SPECIFICATION 334
11.4 INTRODUCING ASSERTIONS INTO SOFTWARE TEXTS 337
11.5 PRECONDITIONS AND POSTCONDITIONS 338
11.6 CONTRACTING FOR SOFTWARE RELIABILITY 341
11.7 WORKING WITH ASSERTIONS 348
11.8 CLASS INVARIANTS 363
11.9 WHEN IS A CLASS CORRECT? 369
11.10 THE ADT CONNECTION 373
11.11 AN ASSERTION INSTRUCTION 378
11.12 LOOP INVARIANTS AND VARIANTS 380
11.13 USING ASSERTIONS 389
11.14 DISCUSSION 398
11.15 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 406
11.16 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 407
EXERCISES 408
POSTSCRIPT: THE ARIANE 5 FAILURE 410

Chapter 12: When the contract is broken: exception handling 411
第12章:毁约的时候——异常处理
12.1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF EXCEPTION HANDLING 411
12.2 HANDLING EXCEPTIONS 414
12.3 AN EXCEPTION MECHANISM 419
12.4 EXCEPTION HANDLING EXAMPLES 422
12.5 THE TASK OF A RESCUE CLAUSE 427
12.6 ADVANCED EXCEPTION HANDLING 431
12.7 DISCUSSION 435
12.8 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 437
12.9 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 438
EXERCISES 438

Chapter 13: Supporting mechanisms 439
第13章:辅助机制
13.1 INTERFACING WITH NON-O-O SOFTWARE 439
13.2 ARGUMENT PASSING 444
13.3 INSTRUCTIONS 447
13.4 EXPRESSIONS 452
13.5 STRINGS 456
13.6 INPUT AND OUTPUT 457
13.7 LEXICAL CONVENTIONS 457
13.8 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 458
EXERCISES 458

Chapter 14: Introduction to inheritance 459
第14章:初探继承
14.1 POLYGONS AND RECTANGLES 460
14.2 POLYMORPHISM 467
14.3 TYPING FOR INHERITANCE 472
14.4 DYNAMIC BINDING 480
14.5 DEFERRED FEATURES AND CLASSES 482
14.6 REDECLARATION TECHNIQUES 491
14.7 THE MEANING OF INHERITANCE 494
14.8 THE ROLE OF DEFERRED CLASSES 500
14.9 DISCUSSION 507
14.10 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 516
14.11 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 517
EXERCISES 517

Chapter 15: Multiple inheritance 519
第15章:多重继承
15.1 EXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE INHERITANCE 519
15.2 FEATURE RENAMING 535
15.3 FLATTENING THE STRUCTURE 541
15.4 REPEATED INHERITANCE 543
15.5 DISCUSSION 563
15.6 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 566
15.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 567
EXERCISES 567

Chapter 16: Inheritance techniques 569
第16章:继承的技巧
16.1 INHERITANCE AND ASSERTIONS 569
16.2 THE GLOBAL INHERITANCE STRUCTURE 580
16.3 FROZEN FEATURES 583
16.4 CONSTRAINED GENERICITY 585
16.5 ASSIGNMENT ATTEMPT 591
16.6 TYPING AND REDECLARATION 595
16.7 ANCHORED DECLARATION 598
16.8 INHERITANCE AND INFORMATION HIDING 605
16.9 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 609
16.10 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 610
EXERCISES 610

Chapter 17: Typing 611
第17章:型别化
17.1 THE TYPING PROBLEM 611
17.2 STATIC TYPING: WHY AND HOW 615
17.3 COVARIANCE AND DESCENDANT HIDING 621
17.4 FIRST APPROACHES TO SYSTEM VALIDITY 628
17.5 RELYING ON ANCHORED TYPES 630
17.6 GLOBAL ANALYSIS 633
17.7 BEWARE OF POLYMORPHIC CATCALLS! 636
17.8 AN ASSESSMENT 639
17.9 THE PERFECT FIT 640
17.10 KEY CONCEPTS STUDIED IN THIS CHAPTER 641
17.11 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 641

Chapter 18: Global objects and constants 643
第18章:全局对象和常量
18.1 CONSTANTS OF BASIC TYPES 643
18.2 USE OF CONSTANTS 645
18.3 CONSTANTS OF CLASS TYPES 646
18.4 APPLICATIONS OF ONCE ROUTINES 648
18.5 CONSTANTS OF STRING TYPE 653
18.6 UNIQUE VALUES 654
18.7 DISCUSSION 656
18.8 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 659
18.9 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 660
EXERCISES 660

PART D: OBJECT-ORIENTED METHODOLOGY:
APPLYING THE METHOD WELL 661
第四部分:面向对象方法学——妥当的实施方法

Chapter 19: On methodology 663
第19章:关于方法学
19.1 SOFTWARE METHODOLOGY: WHY AND WHAT 663
19.2 DEVISING GOOD RULES: ADVICE TO THE ADVISORS 664
19.3 ON USING METAPHORS 671
19.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING HUMBLE 673
19.5 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 674
EXERCISES 674

Chapter 20: Design pattern: multi-panel interactive systems 675
第20章:设计模式——多面板交互式系统
20.1 MULTI-PANEL SYSTEMS 675
20.2 A SIMPLE-MINDED ATTEMPT 677
20.3 A FUNCTIONAL, TOP-DOWN SOLUTION 678
20.4 A CRITIQUE OF THE SOLUTION 682
20.5 AN OBJECT-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE 684
20.6 DISCUSSION 693
20.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 694

Chapter 21: Inheritance case study: “undo” in an interactive
system 695
第21章:继承案例研习——交互式系统中的“undo(撤销)”
21.1 PERSEVERARE DIABOLICUM 695
21.2 FINDING THE ABSTRACTIONS 699
21.3 MULTI-LEVEL UNDO-REDO 704
21.4 IMPLEMENTATION ASPECTS 707
21.5 A USER INTERFACE FOR UNDOING AND REDOING 711
21.6 DISCUSSION 712
21.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 715
EXERCISES 715

Chapter 22: How to find the classes 719
第22章:如何寻求类
22.1 STUDYING A REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT 720
22.2 DANGER SIGNALS 726
22.3 GENERAL HEURISTICS FOR FINDING CLASSES 731
22.4 OTHER SOURCES OF CLASSES 735
22.5 REUSE 740
22.6 THE METHOD FOR OBTAINING CLASSES 741
22.7 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 743
22.8 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 744

Chapter 23: Principles of class design 747
第23章:类的设计原则
23.1 SIDE EFFECTS IN FUNCTIONS 748
23.2 HOW MANY ARGUMENTS FOR A FEATURE? 764
23.3 CLASS SIZE: THE SHOPPING LIST APPROACH 770
23.4 ACTIVE DATA STRUCTURES 774
23.5 SELECTIVE EXPORTS 796
23.6 DEALING WITH ABNORMAL CASES 797
23.7 CLASS EVOLUTION: THE OBSOLETE CLAUSE 802
23.8 DOCUMENTING A CLASS AND A SYSTEM 803
23.9 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 806
23.10 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 806
EXERCISES 807

Chapter 24: Using inheritance well 809
第24章:恰当的使用继承
24.1 HOW NOT TO USE INHERITANCE 809
24.2 WOULD YOU RATHER BUY OR INHERIT? 812
24.3 AN APPLICATION: THE HANDLE TECHNIQUE 817
24.4 TAXOMANIA 820
24.5 USING INHERITANCE: A TAXONOMY OF TAXONOMY 822
24.6 ONE MECHANISM, OR MORE? 833
24.7 SUBTYPE INHERITANCE AND DESCENDANT HIDING 835
24.8 IMPLEMENTATION INHERITANCE 844
24.9 FACILITY INHERITANCE 847
24.10 MULTIPLE CRITERIA AND VIEW INHERITANCE 851
24.11 HOW TO DEVELOP INHERITANCE STRUCTURES 858
24.12 A SUMMARY VIEW: USING INHERITANCE WELL 862
24.13 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 863
24.14 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 863
24.15 APPENDIX: A HISTORY OF TAXONOMY 864
EXERCISES 869

Chapter 25: Useful techniques 871
第25章:有用的技巧
25.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY 871
25.2 CLASSES 872
25.3 INHERITANCE TECHNIQUES 873

Chapter 26: A sense of style 875
第26章:
26.1 COSMETICS MATTERS! 875
26.2 CHOOSING THE RIGHT NAMES 879
26.3 USING CONSTANTS 884
26.4 HEADER COMMENTS AND INDEXING CLAUSES 886
26.5 TEXT LAYOUT AND PRESENTATION 891
26.6 FONTS 900
26.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 901
EXERCISES 902

Chapter 27: Object-oriented analysis 903
第27章:面向对象分析
27.1 THE GOALS OF ANALYSIS 903
27.2 THE CHANGING NATURE OF ANALYSIS 906
27.3 THE CONTRIBUTION OF OBJECT TECHNOLOGY 907
27.4 PROGRAMMING A TV STATION 907
27.5 EXPRESSING THE ANALYSIS: MULTIPLE VIEWS 914
27.6 ANALYSIS METHODS 917
27.7 THE BUSINESS OBJECT NOTATION 919
27.8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 922

Chapter 28: The software construction process 923
第28章:软件构造过程
28.1 CLUSTERS 923
28.2 CONCURRENT ENGINEERING 924
28.3 STEPS AND TASKS 926
28.4 THE CLUSTER MODEL OF THE SOFTWARE LIFECYCLE 926
28.5 GENERALIZATION 928
28.6 SEAMLESSNESS AND REVERSIBILITY 930
28.7 WITH US, EVERYTHING IS THE FACE 933
28.8 KEY CONCEPTS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER 934
28.9 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 934

Chapter 29: Teaching the method 935
第29章:教授面向对象方法
29.1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING 935
29.2 INTRODUCTORY COURSES 937
29.3 OTHER COURSES 941
29.4 TOWARDS A NEW SOFTWARE PEDAGOGY 942
29.5 AN OBJECT-ORIENTED PLAN 946
29.6 KEY CONCEPTS STUDIED IN THIS CHAPTER 948
29.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 948

PART E: ADVANCED TOPICS 949
第五部分:进阶的主题

Chapter 30: Concurrency, distribution, client-server and
the Internet 951
第30章:并发性、分布性、“客户-服务器”开发以及因特网
30.1 A SNEAK PREVIEW 951
30.2 THE RISE OF CONCURRENCY 953
30.3 FROM PROCESSES TO OBJECTS 956
30.4 INTRODUCING CONCURRENT EXECUTION 964
30.5 SYNCHRONIZATION ISSUES 977
30.6 ACCESSING SEPARATE OBJECTS 982
30.7 WAIT CONDITIONS 990
30.8 REQUESTING SPECIAL SERVICE 998
30.9 EXAMPLES 1003
30.10 TOWARDS A PROOF RULE 1022
30.11 A SUMMARY OF THE MECHANISM 1025
30.12 DISCUSSION 1028
30.13 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 1032
30.14 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 1033
EXERCISES 1035

Chapter 31: Object persistence and databases 1037
第31章:对象永续性和数据库
31.1 PERSISTENCE FROM THE LANGUAGE 1037
31.2 BEYOND PERSISTENCE CLOSURE 1039
31.3 SCHEMA EVOLUTION 1041
31.4 FROM PERSISTENCE TO DATABASES 1047
31.5 OBJECT-RELATIONAL INTEROPERABILITY 1048
31.6 OBJECT-ORIENTED DATABASE FUNDAMENTALS 1050
31.7 O-O DATABASE SYSTEMS: EXAMPLES 1055
31.8 DISCUSSION: BEYOND O-O DATABASES 1058
31.9 KEY CONCEPTS STUDIED IN THIS CHAPTER 1060
31.10 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 1061
EXERCISES 1062

Chapter 32: Some O-O techniques for graphical interactive
applications 1063
第32章:用于图形交互式应用的面向对象技巧
32.1 NEEDED TOOLS 1064
32.2 PORTABILITY AND PLATFORM ADAPTATION 1066
32.3 GRAPHICAL ABSTRACTIONS 1068
32.4 INTERACTION MECHANISMS 1071
32.5 HANDLING THE EVENTS 1072
32.6 A MATHEMATICAL MODEL 1076
32.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 1076

PART F: APPLYING THE METHOD IN VARIOUS
LANGUAGES AND ENVIRONMENTS 1077
第六部分:在各种语言及环境中实施面向对象方法

Chapter 33: O-O programming and Ada 1079
第33章:面向对象程序设计和Ada语言
33.1 A BIT OF CONTEXT 1079
33.2 PACKAGES 1081
33.3 A STACK IMPLEMENTATION 1081
33.4 HIDING THE REPRESENTATION: THE PRIVATE STORY 1085
33.5 EXCEPTIONS 1088
33.6 TASKS 1091
33.7 FROM ADA TO ADA 95 1092
33.8 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS CHAPTER 1097
33.9 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 1097
EXERCISES 1098

Chapter 34: Emulating object technology in non-O-O
environments 1099
第34章:在非面向对象环境中模拟对象技术
34.1 LEVELS OF LANGUAGE SUPPORT 1099
34.2 OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING IN PASCAL? 1100
34.3 FORTRAN 1102
34.4 OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING AND C 1106
34.5 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 1112
EXERCISES 1112

Chapter 35: Simula to Java and beyond: major O-O languages
and environments 1113
第35章:从Simula到Java至更多——主要的面向对象语言及环境
35.1 SIMULA 1113
35.2 SMALLTALK 1126
35.3 LISP EXTENSIONS 1130
35.4 C EXTENSIONS 1131
35.5 JAVA 1136
35.6 OTHER O-O LANGUAGES 1137
35.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 1138
EXERCISES 1139

PART G: DOING IT RIGHT 1141
第七部分:把事情做对

Chapter 36: An object-oriented environment 1143
第36章:一个面向对象环境
36.1 COMPONENTS 1143
36.2 THE LANGUAGE 1144
36.3 THE COMPILATION TECHNOLOGY 1144
36.4 TOOLS 1148
36.5 LIBRARIES 1150
36.6 INTERFACE MECHANISMS 1152
36.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 1160
Epilogue, In Full Frankness Exposing the Language 1161

PART H: APPENDICES 1163
第八部分:附录

Appendix A: Extracts from the Base libraries 1165
Appendix B: Genericity versus inheritance 1167
B.1 GENERICITY 1168
B.2 INHERITANCE 1173
B.3 EMULATING INHERITANCE WITH GENERICITY 1175
B.4 EMULATING GENERICITY WITH INHERITANCE 1176
B.5 COMBINING GENERICITY AND INHERITANCE 1184
B.6 KEY CONCEPTS INTRODUCED IN THIS APPENDIX 1187
B.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 1188
EXERCISES 1188
Appendix C: Principles, rules, precepts and definitions 1189
Appendix D: A glossary of object technology 1193
Appendix E: Bibliography 1203
E.1 WORKS BY OTHER AUTHORS 1203
E.2 WORKS BY THE AUTHOR OF THE PRESENT BOOK 1221
Index 1225

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