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C函数库大全 2

发表于2004/9/21 13:04:00  2522人阅读

分类: 实用的东西

函数名: qsort
功 能: 使用快速排序例程进行排序
用 法: void qsort(void *base, int nelem, int width, int (*fcmp)());
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

int sort_function( const void *a, const void *b);

char list[5][4] = { "cat", "car", "cab", "cap", "can" };

int main(void)
{
int x;

qsort((void *)list, 5, sizeof(list[0]), sort_function);
for (x = 0; x < 5; x++)
printf("%s/n", list[x]);
return 0;
}

int sort_function( const void *a, const void *b)
{
return( strcmp(a,b) );
}

函数名: qsort
功 能: 使用快速排序例程进行排序
用 法: void qsort(void *base, int nelem, int width, int (*fcmp)());
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

int sort_function( const void *a, const void *b);

char list[5][4] = { "cat", "car", "cab", "cap", "can" };

int main(void)
{
int x;

qsort((void *)list, 5, sizeof(list[0]), sort_function);
for (x = 0; x < 5; x++)
printf("%s/n", list[x]);
return 0;
}

int sort_function( const void *a, const void *b)
{
return( strcmp(a,b) );
}



函数名: raise
功 能: 向正在执行的程序发送一个信号
用 法: int raise(int sig);
程序例:

#include

int main(void)
{
int a, b;

a = 10;
b = 0;
if (b == 0)
/* preempt divide by zero error */
raise(SIGFPE);
a = a / b;
return 0;
}

函数名: rand
功 能: 随机数发生器
用 法: void rand(void);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int i;

printf("Ten random numbers from 0 to 99/n/n");
for(i=0; i<10; i++)
printf("%d/n", rand() % 100);
return 0;
}

函数名: randbrd
功 能: 随机块读
用 法: int randbrd(struct fcb *fcbptr, int reccnt);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char far *save_dta;
char line[80], buffer[256];
struct fcb blk;
int i, result;

/* get user input file name for dta */
printf("Enter drive and file name (no path - i.e. a:file.dat)/n");
gets(line);

/* put file name in fcb */
if (!parsfnm(line, &blk, 1))
{
printf("Error in call to parsfnm/n");
exit(1);
}
printf("Drive #%d file: %s/n/n", blk.fcb_drive, blk.fcb_name);

/* open file with DOS FCB open file */
bdosptr(0x0F, &blk, 0);

/* save old dta, and set new one */
save_dta = getdta();
setdta(buffer);

/* set up info for the new dta */
blk.fcb_recsize = 128;
blk.fcb_random = 0L;
result = randbrd(&blk, 1);

/* check results from randbrd */
if (!result)
printf("Read OK/n/n");
else
{
perror("Error during read");
exit(1);
}

/* read in data from the new dta */
printf("The first 128 characters are:/n");
for (i=0; i<128; i++)
putchar(buffer[i]);

/* restore previous dta */
setdta(save_dta);

return 0;
}

函数名: randbwr
功 能: 随机块写
用 法: int randbwr(struct fcp *fcbptr, int reccnt);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char far *save_dta;
char line[80];
char buffer[256] = "RANDBWR test!";
struct fcb blk;
int result;

/* get new file name from user */
printf("Enter a file name to create (no path - ie. a:file.dat/n");
gets(line);

/* parse the new file name to the dta */
parsfnm(line,&blk,1);
printf("Drive #%d file: %s/n", blk.fcb_drive, blk.fcb_name);

/* request DOS services to create file */
if (bdosptr(0x16, &blk, 0) == -1)
{
perror("Error creating file");
exit(1);
}

/* save old dta and set new dta */
save_dta = getdta();
setdta(buffer);

/* write new records */
blk.fcb_recsize = 256;
blk.fcb_random = 0L;
result = randbwr(&blk, 1);

if (!result)
printf("Write OK/n");
else
{
perror("Disk error");
exit(1);
}

/* request DOS services to close the file */
if (bdosptr(0x10, &blk, 0) == -1)
{
perror("Error closing file");
exit(1);
}

/* reset the old dta */
setdta(save_dta);

return 0;
}

函数名: random
功 能: 随机数发生器
用 法: int random(int num);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

/* prints a random number in the range 0 to 99 */
int main(void)
{
randomize();
printf("Random number in the 0-99 range: %d/n", random (100));
return 0;
}

函数名: randomize
功 能: 初始化随机数发生器
用 法: void randomize(void);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int i;

randomize();
printf("Ten random numbers from 0 to 99/n/n");
for(i=0; i<10; i++)
printf("%d/n", rand() % 100);
return 0;
}

函数名: read
功 能: 从文件中读
用 法: int read(int handle, void *buf, int nbyte);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
void *buf;
int handle, bytes;

buf = malloc(10);

/*
Looks for a file in the current directory named TEST.$$$ and attempts
to read 10 bytes from it. To use this example you should create the
file TEST.$$$
*/
if ((handle =
open("TEST.$$$", O_RDONLY | O_BINARY, S_IWRITE | S_IREAD)) == -1)
{
printf("Error Opening File/n");
exit(1);
}

if ((bytes = read(handle, buf, 10)) == -1) {
printf("Read Failed./n");
exit(1);
}
else {
printf("Read: %d bytes read./n", bytes);
}
return 0;
}


函数名: realloc
功 能: 重新分配主存
用 法: void *realloc(void *ptr, unsigned newsize);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char *str;

/* allocate memory for string */
str = malloc(10);

/* copy "Hello" into string */
strcpy(str, "Hello");

printf("String is %s/n Address is %p/n", str, str);
str = realloc(str, 20);
printf("String is %s/n New address is %p/n", str, str);

/* free memory */
free(str);

return 0;
}

函数名: rectangle
功 能: 画一个矩形
用 法: void far rectangle(int left, int top, int right, int bottom);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
int left, top, right, bottom;

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

left = getmaxx() / 2 - 50;
top = getmaxy() / 2 - 50;
right = getmaxx() / 2 + 50;
bottom = getmaxy() / 2 + 50;

/* draw a rectangle */
rectangle(left,top,right,bottom);

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}

函数名: registerbgidriver
功 能: 登录已连接进来的图形驱动程序代码
用 法: int registerbgidriver(void(*driver)(void));
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;

/* register a driver that was added into graphics.lib */
errorcode = registerbgidriver(EGAVGA_driver);

/* report any registration errors */
if (errorcode < 0)
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

/* draw a line */
line(0, 0, getmaxx(), getmaxy());

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}

函数名: remove
功 能: 删除一个文件
用 法: int remove(char *filename);
程序例:

#include

int main(void)
{
char file[80];

/* prompt for file name to delete */
printf("File to delete: ");
gets(file);

/* delete the file */
if (remove(file) == 0)
printf("Removed %s./n",file);
else
perror("remove");

return 0;
}

函数名: rename
功 能: 重命名文件
用 法: int rename(char *oldname, char *newname);
程序例:

#include

int main(void)
{
char oldname[80], newname[80];

/* prompt for file to rename and new name */
printf("File to rename: ");
gets(oldname);
printf("New name: ");
gets(newname);

/* Rename the file */
if (rename(oldname, newname) == 0)
printf("Renamed %s to %s./n", oldname, newname);
else
perror("rename");

return 0;
}

函数名: restorecrtmode
功 能: 将屏幕模式恢复为先前的imitgraph设置
用 法: void far restorecrtmode(void);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
int x, y;

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

x = getmaxx() / 2;
y = getmaxy() / 2;

/* output a message */
settextjustify(CENTER_TEXT, CENTER_TEXT);
outtextxy(x, y, "Press any key to exit graphics:");
getch();

/* restore system to text mode */
restorecrtmode();
printf("We're now in text mode./n");
printf("Press any key to return to graphics mode:");
getch();

/* return to graphics mode */
setgraphmode(getgraphmode());

/* output a message */
settextjustify(CENTER_TEXT, CENTER_TEXT);
outtextxy(x, y, "We're back in graphics mode.");
outtextxy(x, y+textheight("W"), "Press any key to halt:");

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}

函数名: rewind
功 能: 将文件指针重新指向一个流的开头
用 法: int rewind(FILE *stream);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
FILE *fp;
char *fname = "TXXXXXX", *newname, first;

newname = mktemp(fname);
fp = fopen(newname,"w+");
fprintf(fp,"abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz");
rewind(fp);
fscanf(fp,"%c",&first);
printf("The first character is: %c/n",first);
fclose(fp);
remove(newname);

return 0;
}

函数名: rmdir
功 能: 删除DOS文件目录
用 法: int rmdir(char *stream);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

#define DIRNAME "testdir.$$$"

int main(void)
{
int stat;

stat = mkdir(DIRNAME);
if (!stat)
printf("Directory created/n");
else
{
printf("Unable to create directory/n");
exit(1);
}

getch();
system("dir/p");
getch();

stat = rmdir(DIRNAME);
if (!stat)
printf("/nDirectory deleted/n");
else
{
perror("/nUnable to delete directory/n");
exit(1);
}

return 0;
}

函数名: parsfnm
功 能: 分析文件名
用 法: char *parsfnm (char *cmdline, struct fcb *fcbptr, int option);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char line[80];
struct fcb blk;

/* get file name */
printf("Enter drive and file name (no path - ie. a:file.dat)/n");
gets(line);

/* put file name in fcb */
if (parsfnm(line, &blk, 1) == NULL)
printf("Error in parsfm call/n");
else
printf("Drive #%d Name: %11s/n", blk.fcb_drive, blk.fcb_name);

return 0;
}

函数名: peek
功 能: 检查存储单元
用 法: int peek(int segment, unsigned offset);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int value = 0;

printf("The current status of your keyboard is:/n");
value = peek(0x0040, 0x0017);
if (value & 1)
printf("Right shift on/n");
else
printf("Right shift off/n");

if (value & 2)
printf("Left shift on/n");
else
printf("Left shift off/n");

if (value & 4)
printf("Control key on/n");
else
printf("Control key off/n");

if (value & 8)
printf("Alt key on/n");
else
printf("Alt key off/n");

if (value & 16)
printf("Scroll lock on/n");
else
printf("Scroll lock off/n");

if (value & 32)
printf("Num lock on/n");
else
printf("Num lock off/n");

if (value & 64)
printf("Caps lock on/n");
else
printf("Caps lock off/n");

return 0;
}

函数名: peekb
功 能: 检查存储单元
用 法: char peekb (int segment, unsigned offset);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int value = 0;

printf("The current status of your keyboard is:/n");
value = peekb(0x0040, 0x0017);
if (value & 1)
printf("Right shift on/n");
else
printf("Right shift off/n");

if (value & 2)
printf("Left shift on/n");
else
printf("Left shift off/n");

if (value & 4)
printf("Control key on/n");
else
printf("Control key off/n");

if (value & 8)
printf("Alt key on/n");
else
printf("Alt key off/n");

if (value & 16)
printf("Scroll lock on/n");
else
printf("Scroll lock off/n");

if (value & 32)
printf("Num lock on/n");
else
printf("Num lock off/n");

if (value & 64)
printf("Caps lock on/n");
else
printf("Caps lock off/n");

return 0;
}

函数名: perror
功 能: 系统错误信息
用 法: void perror(char *string);
程序例:

#include

int main(void)
{
FILE *fp;

fp = fopen("perror.dat", "r");
if (!fp)
perror("Unable to open file for reading");
return 0;
}

函数名: pieslice
功 能: 绘制并填充一个扇形
用 法: void far pieslice(int x, int stanle, int endangle, int radius);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
int midx, midy;
int stangle = 45, endangle = 135, radius = 100;

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

midx = getmaxx() / 2;
midy = getmaxy() / 2;

/* set fill style and draw a pie slice */
setfillstyle(EMPTY_FILL, getmaxcolor());
pieslice(midx, midy, stangle, endangle, radius);

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}


函数名: poke
功 能: 存值到一个给定存储单元
用 法: void poke(int segment, int offset, int value);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
clrscr();
cprintf("Make sure the scroll lock key is off and press any key/r/n");
getch();
poke(0x0000,0x0417,16);
cprintf("The scroll lock is now on/r/n");
return 0;
}

函数名: pokeb
功 能: 存值到一个给定存储单元
用 法: void pokeb(int segment, int offset, char value);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
clrscr();
cprintf("Make sure the scroll lock key is off and press any key/r/n");
getch();
pokeb(0x0000,0x0417,16);
cprintf("The scroll lock is now on/r/n");
return 0;
}


函数名: poly
功 能: 根据参数产生一个多项式
用 法: double poly(double x, int n, double c[]);
程序例:

#include
#include

/* polynomial: x**3 - 2x**2 + 5x - 1 */

int main(void)
{
double array[] = { -1.0, 5.0, -2.0, 1.0 };
double result;

result = poly(2.0, 3, array);
printf("The polynomial: x**3 - 2.0x**2 + 5x - 1 at 2.0 is %lf/n",
result);
return 0;
}


函数名: pow
功 能: 指数函数(x的y次方)
用 法: double pow(double x, double y);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
double x = 2.0, y = 3.0;

printf("%lf raised to %lf is %lf/n", x, y, pow(x, y));
return 0;
}

函数名: pow10
功 能: 指数函数(10的p次方)
用 法: double pow10(int p);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
double p = 3.0;

printf("Ten raised to %lf is %lf/n", p, pow10(p));
return 0;
}


函数名: printf
功 能: 产生格式化输出的函数
用 法: int printf(char *format...);
程序例:

#include
#include

#define I 555
#define R 5.5

int main(void)
{
int i,j,k,l;
char buf[7];
char *prefix = buf;
char tp[20];
printf("prefix 6d 6o 8x 10.2e "
"10.2f/n");
strcpy(prefix,"%");
for (i = 0; i < 2; i++)
{
for (j = 0; j < 2; j++)
for (k = 0; k < 2; k++)
for (l = 0; l < 2; l++)
{
if (i==0) strcat(prefix,"-");
if (j==0) strcat(prefix,"+");
if (k==0) strcat(prefix,"#");
if (l==0) strcat(prefix,"0");
printf("%5s |",prefix);
strcpy(tp,prefix);
strcat(tp,"6d |");
printf(tp,I);
strcpy(tp,"");
strcpy(tp,prefix);
strcat(tp,"6o |");
printf(tp,I);
strcpy(tp,"");
strcpy(tp,prefix);
strcat(tp,"8x |");
printf(tp,I);
strcpy(tp,"");
strcpy(tp,prefix);
strcat(tp,"10.2e |");
printf(tp,R);
strcpy(tp,prefix);
strcat(tp,"10.2f |");
printf(tp,R);
printf(" /n");
strcpy(prefix,"%");
}
}
return 0;
}


函数名: putc
功 能: 输出一字符到指定流中
用 法: int putc(int ch, FILE *stream);
程序例:

#include

int main(void)
{
char msg[] = "Hello world/n";
int i = 0;

while (msg[i])
putc(msg[i++], stdout);
return 0;
}

函数名: putch
功 能: 输出字符到控制台
用 法: int putch(int ch);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char ch = 0;

printf("Input a string:");
while ((ch != '/r'))
{
ch = getch();
putch(ch);
}
return 0;
}

函数名: putchar
功 能: 在stdout上输出字符
用 法: int putchar(int ch);
程序例:

#include

/* define some box-drawing characters */
#define LEFT_TOP 0xDA
#define RIGHT_TOP 0xBF
#define HORIZ 0xC4
#define VERT 0xB3
#define LEFT_BOT 0xC0
#define RIGHT_BOT 0xD9

int main(void)
{
char i, j;

/* draw the top of the box */
putchar(LEFT_TOP);
for (i=0; i<10; i++)
putchar(HORIZ);
putchar(RIGHT_TOP);
putchar('/n');

/* draw the middle */
for (i=0; i<4; i++)
{
putchar(VERT);
for (j=0; j<10; j++)
putchar(' ');
putchar(VERT);
putchar('/n');
}

/* draw the bottom */
putchar(LEFT_BOT);
for (i=0; i<10; i++)
putchar(HORIZ);
putchar(RIGHT_BOT);
putchar('/n');

return 0;
}

函数名: putenv
功 能: 把字符串加到当前环境中
用 法: int putenv(char *envvar);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char *path, *ptr;
int i = 0;

/* get the current path environment */
ptr = getenv("PATH");

/* set up new path */
path = malloc(strlen(ptr)+15);
strcpy(path,"PATH=");
strcat(path,ptr);
strcat(path,";c://temp");

/* replace the current path and display current environment */
putenv(path);
while (environ[i])
printf("%s/n",environ[i++]);

return 0;
}

函数名: putimage
功 能: 在屏幕上输出一个位图
用 法: void far putimage(int x, int y, void far *bitmap, int op);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

#define ARROW_SIZE 10

void draw_arrow(int x, int y);

int main(void)
{
/* request autodetection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
void *arrow;
int x, y, maxx;
unsigned int size;

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

maxx = getmaxx();
x = 0;
y = getmaxy() / 2;

/* draw the image to be grabbed */
draw_arrow(x, y);

/* calculate the size of the image */
size = imagesize(x, y-ARROW_SIZE, x+(4*ARROW_SIZE), y+ARROW_SIZE);

/* allocate memory to hold the image */
arrow = malloc(size);

/* grab the image */
getimage(x, y-ARROW_SIZE, x+(4*ARROW_SIZE), y+ARROW_SIZE, arrow);

/* repeat until a key is pressed */
while (!kbhit())
{
/* erase old image */
putimage(x, y-ARROW_SIZE, arrow, XOR_PUT);

x += ARROW_SIZE;
if (x >= maxx)
x = 0;

/* plot new image */
putimage(x, y-ARROW_SIZE, arrow, XOR_PUT);
}

/* clean up */
free(arrow);
closegraph();
return 0;
}

void draw_arrow(int x, int y)
{
/* draw an arrow on the screen */
moveto(x, y);
linerel(4*ARROW_SIZE, 0);
linerel(-2*ARROW_SIZE, -1*ARROW_SIZE);
linerel(0, 2*ARROW_SIZE);
linerel(2*ARROW_SIZE, -1*ARROW_SIZE);
}

函数名: putpixel
功 能: 在指定位置画一像素
用 法: void far putpixel (int x, int y, int pixelcolor);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include
#include

#define PIXEL_COUNT 1000
#define DELAY_TIME 100 /* in milliseconds */

int main(void)
{
/* request autodetection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
int i, x, y, color, maxx, maxy, maxcolor, seed;

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

maxx = getmaxx() + 1;
maxy = getmaxy() + 1;
maxcolor = getmaxcolor() + 1;

while (!kbhit())
{
/* seed the random number generator */
seed = random(32767);
srand(seed);
for (i=0; i {
x = random(maxx);
y = random(maxy);
color = random(maxcolor);
putpixel(x, y, color);
}

delay(DELAY_TIME);
srand(seed);
for (i=0; i {
x = random(maxx);
y = random(maxy);
color = random(maxcolor);
if (color == getpixel(x, y))
putpixel(x, y, 0);
}
}

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}

函数名: puts
功 能: 送一字符串到流中
用 法: int puts(char *string);
程序例:

#include
int main(void)
{
char string[] = "This is an example output string/n";

puts(string);
return 0;
}


函数名: puttext
功 能: 将文本从存储区拷贝到屏幕
用 法: int puttext(int left, int top, int right, int bottom, void *source);
程序例:

#include
int main(void)
{
char buffer[512];

/* put some text to the console */
clrscr();
gotoxy(20, 12);
cprintf("This is a test. Press any key to continue ...");
getch();

/* grab screen contents */
gettext(20, 12, 36, 21,buffer);
clrscr();

/* put selected characters back to the screen */
gotoxy(20, 12);
puttext(20, 12, 36, 21, buffer);
getch();

return 0;
}

函数名: putw
功 能: 把一字符或字送到流中
用 法: int putw(int w, FILE *stream);
程序例:

#include
#include

#define FNAME "test.$$$"

int main(void)
{
FILE *fp;
int word;

/* place the word in a file */
fp = fopen(FNAME, "wb");
if (fp == NULL)
{
printf("Error opening file %s/n", FNAME);
exit(1);
}

word = 94;
putw(word,fp);
if (ferror(fp))
printf("Error writing to file/n");
else
printf("Successful write/n");
fclose(fp);

/* reopen the file */
fp = fopen(FNAME, "rb");
if (fp == NULL)
{
printf("Error opening file %s/n", FNAME);
exit(1);
}

/* extract the word */
word = getw(fp);
if (ferror(fp))
printf("Error reading file/n");
else
printf("Successful read: word = %d/n", word);

/* clean up */
fclose(fp);
unlink(FNAME);

return 0;
}

void normvideo(void );
选择正常亮度字符。
将文本属性(前景和背景)置为启动程序时它所具有的值,来选择标准字符。

void nosound(void );
关闭由调用 sound而发声的扬声器。

函数名: open
功 能: 打开一个文件用于读或写
用 法: int open(char *pathname, int access[, int permiss]);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int handle;
char msg[] = "Hello world";

if ((handle = open("TEST.$$$", O_CREAT | O_TEXT)) == -1)
{
perror("Error:");
return 1;
}
write(handle, msg, strlen(msg));
close(handle);
return 0;
}

函数名: outport
功 能: 输出整数到硬件端口中
用 法: void outport(int port, int value);
程序例:

#include
#include
int main(void)
{
int value = 64;
int port = 0;

outportb(port, value);
printf("Value %d sent to port number %d/n", value, port);
return 0;
}

函数名: outportb
功 能: 输出字节到硬件端口中
用 法: void outportb(int port, char byte);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int value = 64;
int port = 0;

outportb(port, value);
printf("Value %d sent to port number %d/n", value, port);
return 0;
}

函数名: outtext
功 能: 在视区显示一个字符串
用 法: void far outtext(char far *textstring);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
int midx, midy;

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

midx = getmaxx() / 2;
midy = getmaxy() / 2;

/* move the C.P. to the center of the screen */
moveto(midx, midy);

/* output text starting at the C.P. */
outtext("This ");
outtext("is ");
outtext("a ");
outtext("test.");

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}


函数名: outtextxy
功 能: 在指定位置显示一字符串
用 法: void far outtextxy(int x, int y, char *textstring);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
int midx, midy;

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph( &gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

midx = getmaxx() / 2;
midy = getmaxy() / 2;

/* output text at the center of the screen*/
/* Note: the C.P. doesn't get changed.*/
outtextxy(midx, midy, "This is a test.");

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}

main()主函数
每一C 程序都 必须 有一main()函数, 可以根据自己的爱好把它放在程序的某
个地方。有些程序员把它放在最前面, 而另一些程序员把它放在最后面, 无论放
在哪个地方, 以下几点说明都是适合的。
1. main() 参数
在Turbo C2.0启动过程中, 传递main()函数三个参数: argc, argv和env。
* argc: 整数, 为传给main()的命令行参数个数。
* argv: 字符串数组。
在DOS 3.X 版本中, argv[0] 为程序运行的全路径名; 对DOS 3.0
以下的版本, argv[0]为空串("") 。
argv[1] 为在DOS命令行中执行程序名后的第一个字符串;
argv[2] 为执行程序名后的第二个字符串;
...
argv[argc]为NULL。
*env: 安符串数组。env[] 的每一个元素都包含ENVVAR=value形式的字符
串。其中ENVVAR为环境变量如PATH或87。value 为ENVVAR的对应值如C:/DOS, C:
/TURBOC(对于PATH) 或YES(对于87)。
Turbo C2.0启动时总是把这三个参数传递给main()函数, 可以在用户程序中
说明(或不说明)它们, 如果说明了部分(或全部)参数, 它们就成为main()子程序
的局部变量。
请注意: 一旦想说明这些参数, 则必须按argc, argv, env 的顺序, 如以下
的例子:
main()
main(int argc)
main(int argc, char *argv[])
main(int argc, char *argv[], char *env[])

其中第二种情况是合法的, 但不常见, 因为在程序中很少有只用argc, 而不
用argv[]的情况。
以下提供一样例程序EXAMPLE.EXE, 演示如何在main()函数中使用三个参数:
/*program name EXAMPLE.EXE*/
#include
#include
main(int argc, char *argv[], char *env[])
{
int i;
printf("These are the %d command- line arguments passed to
main:/n/n", argc);
for(i=0; i<=argc; i++)
printf("argv[%d]:%s/n", i, argv[i]);
printf("/nThe environment string(s)on this system are:/n/n");
for(i=0; env[i]!=NULL; i++)
printf(" env[%d]:%s/n", i, env[i]);
}

如果在DOS 提示符下, 按以下方式运行EXAMPLE.EXE:
C:/example first_argument "argument with blanks" 3 4 "last but
one" stop!
注意: 可以用双引号括起内含空格的参数, 如本例中的: " argument
with blanks"和"Last but one")。
结果是这样的:
The value of argc is 7
These are the 7 command-linearguments passed to main:
argv[0]:C:/TURBO/EXAMPLE.EXE
argv[1]:first_argument
argv[2]:argument with blanks
argv[3]:3
argv[4]:4
argv[5]:last but one
argv[6]:stop!
argv[7]:(NULL)
The environment string(s) on this system are:
env[0]: COMSPEC=C:/COMMAND.COM
env[1]: PROMPT=$P$G /*视具体设置而定*/
env[2]: PATH=C:/DOS;C:/TC /*视具体设置而定*/

应该提醒的是: 传送main() 函数的命令行参数的最大长度为128 个字符 (包
括参数间的空格), 这是由DOS 限制的。

函数名: matherr
功 能: 用户可修改的数学错误处理程序
用 法: int matherr(struct exception *e);
程序例:

/* This is a user-defined matherr function that prevents
any error messages from being printed. */

#include

int matherr(struct exception *a)
{
return 1;
}


函数名: memccpy
功 能: 从源source中拷贝n个字节到目标destin中
用 法: void *memccpy(void *destin, void *source, unsigned char ch,
unsigned n);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char *src = "This is the source string";
char dest[50];
char *ptr;

ptr = memccpy(dest, src, 'c', strlen(src));

if (ptr)
{
*ptr = '/0';
printf("The character was found: %s/n", dest);
}
else
printf("The character wasn't found/n");
return 0;
}

函数名: malloc
功 能: 内存分配函数
用 法: void *malloc(unsigned size);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char *str;

/* allocate memory for string */
/* This will generate an error when compiling */
/* with C++, use the new operator instead. */
if ((str = malloc(10)) == NULL)
{
printf("Not enough memory to allocate buffer/n");
exit(1); /* terminate program if out of memory */
}

/* copy "Hello" into string */
strcpy(str, "Hello");

/* display string */
printf("String is %s/n", str);

/* free memory */
free(str);

return 0;
}


函数名: memchr
功 能: 在数组的前n个字节中搜索字符
用 法: void *memchr(void *s, char ch, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char str[17];
char *ptr;

strcpy(str, "This is a string");
ptr = memchr(str, 'r', strlen(str));
if (ptr)
printf("The character 'r' is at position: %d/n", ptr - str);
else
printf("The character was not found/n");
return 0;
}

函数名: memcpy
功 能: 从源source中拷贝n个字节到目标destin中
用 法: void *memcpy(void *destin, void *source, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include
#include
int main(void)
{
char src[] = "******************************";
char dest[] = "abcdefghijlkmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456709";
char *ptr;
printf("destination before memcpy: %s/n", dest);
ptr = memcpy(dest, src, strlen(src));
if (ptr)
printf("destination after memcpy: %s/n", dest);
else
printf("memcpy failed/n");
return 0;
}

函数名: memicmp
功 能: 比较两个串s1和s2的前n个字节, 忽略大小写
用 法: int memicmp(void *s1, void *s2, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char *buf1 = "ABCDE123";
char *buf2 = "abcde456";
int stat;
stat = memicmp(buf1, buf2, 5);
printf("The strings to position 5 are ");
if (stat)
printf("not ");
printf("the same/n");
return 0;
}

函数名: memmove
功 能: 移动一块字节
用 法: void *memmove(void *destin, void *source, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char *dest = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789";
char *src = "******************************";
printf("destination prior to memmove: %s/n", dest);
memmove(dest, src, 26);
printf("destination after memmove: %s/n", dest);
return 0;
}


函数名: memset
功 能: 设置s中的所有字节为ch, s数组的大小由n给定
用 法: void *memset(void *s, char ch, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char buffer[] = "Hello world/n";

printf("Buffer before memset: %s/n", buffer);
memset(buffer, '*', strlen(buffer) - 1);
printf("Buffer after memset: %s/n", buffer);
return 0;
}


函数名: mkdir
功 能: 建立一个目录
用 法: int mkdir(char *pathname);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int status;

clrscr();
status = mkdir("asdfjklm");
(!status) ? (printf("Directory created/n")) :
(printf("Unable to create directory/n"));

getch();
system("dir");
getch();

status = rmdir("asdfjklm");
(!status) ? (printf("Directory deleted/n")) :
(perror("Unable to delete directory"));

return 0;
}


函数名: mktemp
功 能: 建立唯一的文件名
用 法: char *mktemp(char *template);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* fname defines the template for the
temporary file. */

char *fname = "TXXXXXX", *ptr;

ptr = mktemp(fname);
printf("%s/n",ptr);
return 0;
}

函数名: MK_FP
功 能: 设置一个远指针
用 法: void far *MK_FP(unsigned seg, unsigned off);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int gd, gm, i;
unsigned int far *screen;

detectgraph(&gd, &gm);
if (gd == HERCMONO)
screen = MK_FP(0xB000, 0);
else
screen = MK_FP(0xB800, 0);
for (i=0; i<26; i++)
screen[i] = 0x0700 + ('a' + i);
return 0;
}

函数名: modf
功 能: 把数分为指数和尾数
用 法: double modf(double value, double *iptr);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
double fraction, integer;
double number = 100000.567;

fraction = modf(number, &integer);
printf("The whole and fractional parts of %lf are %lf and %lf/n",
number, integer, fraction);
return 0;
}


函数名: movedata
功 能: 拷贝字节
用 法: void movedata(int segsrc, int offsrc, int segdest,
int offdest, unsigned numbytes);
程序例:

#include

#define MONO_BASE 0xB000

/* saves the contents of the monochrome screen in buffer */
void save_mono_screen(char near *buffer)
{
movedata(MONO_BASE, 0, _DS, (unsigned)buffer, 80*25*2);
}

int main(void)
{
char buf[80*25*2];
save_mono_screen(buf);
}

函数名: moverel
功 能: 将当前位置(CP)移动一相对距离
用 法: void far moverel(int dx, int dy);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
char msg[80];

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

/* move the C.P. to location (20, 30) */
moveto(20, 30);

/* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

/* create and output a message at (20, 30) */
sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
outtextxy(20, 30, msg);

/* move to a point a relative distance */
/* away from the current value of C.P. */
moverel(100, 100);

/* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

/* create and output a message at C.P. */
sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
outtext(msg);

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}

函数名: movetext
功 能: 将屏幕文本从一个矩形区域拷贝到另一个矩形区域
用 法: int movetext(int left, int top, int right, int bottom,
int newleft, int newtop);
程序例:
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char *str = "This is a test string";

clrscr();
cputs(str);
getch();

movetext(1, 1, strlen(str), 2, 10, 10);
getch();

return 0;
}

函数名: moveto
功 能: 将CP移到(x, y)
用 法: void far moveto(int x, int y);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
char msg[80];

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
}

/* move the C.P. to location (20, 30) */
moveto(20, 30);

/* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

/* create and output a message at (20, 30) */
sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
outtextxy(20, 30, msg);

/* move to (100, 100) */
moveto(100, 100);

/* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

/* create and output a message at C.P. */
sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
outtext(msg);

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}

函数名: movemem
功 能: 移动一块字节
用 法: void movemem(void *source, void *destin, unsigned len);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
char *source = "Borland International";
char *destination;
int length;

length = strlen(source);
destination = malloc(length + 1);
movmem(source,destination,length);
printf("%s/n",destination);

return 0;
}

函数名: normvideo
功 能: 选择正常亮度字符
用 法: void normvideo(void);
程序例:

#include

int main(void)
{
normvideo();
cprintf("NORMAL Intensity Text/r/n");
return 0;
}

函数名: nosound
功 能: 关闭PC扬声器
用 法: void nosound(void);
程序例:

/* Emits a 7-Hz tone for 10 seconds.

True story: 7 Hz is the resonant frequency of a chicken's skull cavity.
This was determined empirically in Australia, where a new factory
generating 7-Hz tones was located too close to a chicken ranch:
When the factory started up, all the chickens died.

Your PC may not be able to emit a 7-Hz tone.
*/

int main(void)
{
sound(7);
delay(10000);
nosound();
}

函数名: labs
用 法: long labs(long n);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
long result;
long x = -12345678L;

result= labs(x);
printf("number: %ld abs value: %ld/n",
x, result);

return 0;
}


函数名: ldexp
功 能: 计算value*2的幂
用 法: double ldexp(double value, int exp);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
double value;
double x = 2;

/* ldexp raises 2 by a power of 3
then multiplies the result by 2 */
value = ldexp(x,3);
printf("The ldexp value is: %lf/n",
value);

return 0;
}

函数名: ldiv
功 能: 两个长整型数相除, 返回商和余数
用 法: ldiv_t ldiv(long lnumer, long ldenom);
程序例:

/* ldiv example */

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
ldiv_t lx;

lx = ldiv(100000L, 30000L);
printf("100000 div 30000 = %ld remainder %ld/n", lx.quot, lx.rem);
return 0;

}

函数名: lfind
功 能: 执行线性搜索
用 法: void *lfind(void *key, void *base, int *nelem, int width,
int (*fcmp)());
程序例:

#include
#include

int compare(int *x, int *y)
{
return( *x - *y );
}

int main(void)
{
int array[5] = {35, 87, 46, 99, 12};
size_t nelem = 5;
int key;
int *result;

key = 99;
result = lfind(&key, array, &nelem,
sizeof(int), (int(*)(const void *,const void *))compare);
if (result)
printf("Number %d found/n",key);
else
printf("Number %d not found/n",key);

return 0;
}


函数名: line
功 能: 在指定两点间画一直线
用 法: void far line(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
int xmax, ymax;

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
/* an error occurred */
if (errorcode != grOk)
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n",
grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1);
}

setcolor(getmaxcolor());
xmax = getmaxx();
ymax = getmaxy();

/* draw a diagonal line */
line(0, 0, xmax, ymax);

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}

函数名: linerel
功 能: 从当前位置点(CP)到与CP有一给定相对距离的点画一直线
用 法: void far linerel(int dx, int dy);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
/* request auto detection */
int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
char msg[80];

/* initialize graphics and local variables */
initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

/* read result of initialization */
errorcode = graphresult();
if (errorcode != grOk)
{
printf("Graphics error: %s/n",
grapherrormsg(errorcode));
printf("Press any key to halt:");
getch();
exit(1);
}

/* move the C.P. to location (20, 30) */
moveto(20, 30);

/* create and output a
message at (20, 30) */
sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
outtextxy(20, 30, msg);

/* draw a line to a point a relative
distance away from the current
value of C.P. */
linerel(100, 100);

/* create and output a message at C.P. */
sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
outtext(msg);

/* clean up */
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}

函数名: localtime
功 能: 把日期和时间转变为结构
用 法: struct tm *localtime(long *clock);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
time_t timer;
struct tm *tblock;

/* gets time of day */
timer = time(NULL);

/* converts date/time to a structure */
tblock = localtime(&timer);

printf("Local time is: %s", asctime(tblock));

return 0;
}


函数名: lock
功 能: 设置文件共享锁
用 法: int lock(int handle, long offset, long length);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int handle, status;
long length;

/* Must have DOS Share.exe loaded for */
/* file locking to function properly */

handle = sopen("c://autoexec.bat",
O_RDONLY,SH_DENYNO,S_IREAD);

if (handle < 0)
{
printf("sopen failed/n");
exit(1);
}

length = filelength(handle);
status = lock(handle,0L,length/2);

if (status == 0)
printf("lock succeeded/n");
else
printf("lock failed/n");

status = unlock(handle,0L,length/2);

if (status == 0)
printf("unlock succeeded/n");
else
printf("unlock failed/n");

close(handle);
return 0;
}

函数名: log
功 能: 对数函数ln(x)
用 法: double log(double x);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
double result;
double x = 8.6872;

result = log(x);
printf("The natural log of %lf is %lf/n", x, result);

return 0;
}

函数名: log10
功 能: 对数函数log
用 法: double log10(double x);
程序例:

#include
#include

int main(void)
{
double result;
double x = 800.6872;

result = log10(x);
printf("The common log of %lf is %lf/n", x, result);

return 0;
}


函数名: longjump
功 能: 执行非局部转移
用 法: void longjump(jmp_buf env, int val);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include

void subroutine(jmp_buf);

int main(void)
{

int value;
jmp_buf jumper;

value = setjmp(jumper);
if (value != 0)
{
printf("Longjmp with value %d/n", value);
exit(value);
}
printf("About to call subroutine ... /n");
subroutine(jumper);

return 0;
}

void subroutine(jmp_buf jumper)
{
longjmp(jumper,1);
}


函数名: lowvideo
功 能: 选择低亮度字符
用 法: void lowvideo(void);
程序例:

#include

int main(void)
{
clrscr();

highvideo();
cprintf("High Intesity Text/r/n");
lowvideo();
gotoxy(1,2);
cprintf("Low Intensity Text/r/n");

return 0;
}


函数名: lrotl, _lrotl
功 能: 将无符号长整型数向左循环移位
用 法: unsigned long lrotl(unsigned long lvalue, int count);
unsigned long _lrotl(unsigned long lvalue, int count);
程序例:

/* lrotl example */
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
unsigned long result;
unsigned long value = 100;

result = _lrotl(value,1);
printf("The value %lu rotated left one bit is: %lu/n", value, result);

return 0;
}

函数名: lsearch
功 能: 线性搜索
用 法: void *lsearch(const void *key, void *base, size_t *nelem,
size_t width, int (*fcmp)(const void *, const void *));
程序例:

#include
#include

int compare(int *x, int *y)
{
return( *x - *y );
}

int main(void)
{
int array[5] = {35, 87, 46, 99, 12};
size_t nelem = 5;
int key;
int *result;

key = 99;
result = lfind(&key, array, &nelem,
sizeof(int), (int(*)(const void *,const void *))compare);
if (result)
printf("Number %d found/n",key);
else
printf("Number %d not found/n",key);

return 0;
}


函数名: lseek
功 能: 移动文件读/写指针
用 法: long lseek(int handle, long offset, int fromwhere);
程序例:

#include
#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(void)
{
int handle;
char msg[] = "This is a test";
char ch;

/* create a file */
handle = open("TEST.$$$", O_CREAT | O_RDWR, S_IREAD | S_IWRITE);

/* write some data to the file */
write(handle, msg, strlen(msg));

/* seek to the begining of the file */
lseek(handle, 0L, SEEK_SET);

/* reads chars from the file until we hit EOF */
do
{
read(handle, &ch, 1);
printf("%c", ch);
} while (!eof(handle));

close(handle);
return 0;
}

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