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如何将C/C++程序转译成Delphi(五)

发表于2001/7/24 13:28:00  1072人阅读


1. Anatomy of a C Header


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2. Conversion Basics

2.1. Naming

The naming in converted header files should follow Borland's style as far as possible. This means, keep the original names, but make them more Delphi-like.

How should the C names be translated into Delphi?

The C-programmer usually uses upper case letters for type identifiers, e.g. MY_TYPE. In Delphi, a type identifier has a T-prefix followed by the name of the type in mixed (proper) case. Underscores are not used. The Delphi-like translation of the C type identifier MY_TYPE is TMyType.

In C older header files the pointer-type is named LPMY_TYPE. In translation to Delphi it should be PMyType to conform with Borland's style.

Constants are usually named identically to the original name, including upper case letters and underscores.

A few examples:

C Delphi-Translation


typedef struct _IMAGE_FILE_HEADER {
  WORD Machine;
  WORD NumberOfSections;
  DWORD TimeDateStamp;
  DWORD PointerToSymbolTable;
  DWORD NumberOfSymbols;
  WORD SizeOfOptionalHeader;
  WORD Characteristics;
} IMAGE_FILE_HEADER,
*PIMAGE_FILE_HEADER;
type
  PImageFileHeader = ^TImageFileHeader;
  TImageFileHeader = packed record
    Machine: Word;
    NumberOfSections: Word;
    TimeDateStamp: DWORD;
    PointerToSymbolTable: DWORD;
    NumberOfSymbols: DWORD;
    SizeOfOptionalHeader: Word;
    Characteristics: Word;
  end;




#define LANG_NEUTRAL 0x00
#define LANG_AFRIKAANS 0x36
#define LANG_ALBANIAN 0x1C

#define LANG_ARABIC 0x01
#define LANG_BASQUE 0x2D
#define LANG_BELARUSIAN 0x23
#define LANG_BULGARIAN 0x02
#define LANG_CATALAN 0x03
#define LANG_CHINESE 0x04
CONST
  LANG_NEUTRAL = $00;
  LANG_AFRIKAANS = $36;
  LANG_ALBANIAN = $1C;
  LANG_ARABIC = $01;
  LANG_BASQUE = $2D;
  LANG_BELARUSIAN = $23;
  LANG_BULGARIAN = $02;
  LANG_CATALAN = $03;
  LANG_CHINESE = $04;


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2.2. Unit dependencies

C and C++ use #include to include header files in another header file or a source file. Delphi refers to units (in the USES clause) instead of header files.

For example

  • D3D.H includes D3DTYPES.H, D3DCAPS.H
  • D3DTYPES.H includes DDRAW.H
  • One unit contains one translation of a header file, so incorporation of D3DTYPES.H and D3DCAPS.H is required when translating D3D.H.

Thus the translation of D3D.H (D3D.PAS) needs D3DTYPES.PAS and D3DCAPS.PAS in uses.

In Windows.pas Borland has already done a lot of work for us. Borland's windows unit contains most of the basic Windows datatypes, so any translated unit needing Windows datatypes needs the Windows unit in its uses clause.

Note: In Delphi 1.0, substitute WinProcs.pas and WinTypes.pas for Windows.pas, since these two units include for Delphi 16-bit what Delphi 32-bit defines in Windows.pas. In Delphi 2 these two files are also aliased to Windows.pas in Delphi 32-bit versions for backward compatibility. Some header files contain source which is not directly translatable into Pascal, but the header file's impact on compilation must be incorporated into the translated code. For example, PSHPACK?.H contains compiler directives that are not directly translatable to Delphi; PSHPACK4.H directs the compiler to use 4-byte packing. More about this later.


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2.3. #defines as constants

C and C++ use #defines in several ways. In a C header file #define can be used

  • for declaring a constant
  • for declaring a symbol for conditional compilation
  • for macros

This chapter describes the translation of #define into Delphi constants.

The format for declaring constants in C is:

#define NameOfConstant Value 

For example:

#define TIME_ZONE_ID_UNKNOWN 0 



#define TIME_ZONE_ID_STANDARD 1



#define TIME_ZONE_ID_DAYLIGHT 2

The translation in Delphi is:

CONST



  TIME_ZONE_ID_UNKNOWN = 0;



  TIME_ZONE_ID_STANDARD = 1;



  TIME_ZONE_ID_DAYLIGHT = 2;


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2.3.1. Hexadecimal values

C uses the prefix 0x to specify a hexadecimal value. For example, the C declaration

#define MY_CONSTANT 0xFF 

translates to Delphi as

CONST



  MY_CONSTANT = $FF;


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3. Data Types

3.1. Basic Data Types

Here is a list of C data types and the equivalents in Delphi:

C Delphi
UNSIGNED LONG Dword (Longint)
UNSIGNED SHORT word
INT integer
UNSIGNED CHAR byte, char (Depending on usage)


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3.2. Windows API Common Types

The Windows API defines some common types for API usage. It is recommended that the same names be used in translations as far as possible. Windows.pas declares most of these types, some of which are listed below:

API Type declaration Type used in Delphi Translation Type Specification
ULONG ULong DWord
PULONG PULong ^DWord
USHORT UShort SmallInt
PUSHORT PUShort ^SmallInt
UCHAR UChar Byte
PUCHAR PUChar ^Byte
DWORD DWord DWord
PDWORD, LPDWORD PDWord ^DWord
     
BOOL Bool Bool
PBOOL, LPBOOL PBool ^Bool
BYTE Byte Byte
PBYTE, LPBYTE PByte ^Byte
WORD Word Word
PWORD, LPWORD Pword ^Word
INT Integer Integer
PINT, LPINT PInteger ^Integer
LPVOID Pointer Untyped Pointer
UINT UInt Integer
PUINT, LPUINT PUInt ^Integer
     
WCHAR WChar WideChar
PWCHAR, LPWCHAR, PCWCH, LPCWCH, NWPSTR, PWChar ^WideChar
PWSTR, LPWSTR LPWStr ^WideChar
PCWSTR, LPCWSTR LPCWStr ^WideChar
PCH, LPCH PChar ^Char
PSTR, LPSTR LPStr ^Char
PCSTR, LPCSTR LPCStr ^Char
     
HANDLE THandle DWord
PHANDLE, LPHANDLE PHandle ^DWord
     


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3.3. Arrays - Two Methods

Method 1:

In C the first index of an array (or vector) is 0 and the declaration specifies the number of elements (not the last index), e.g.

DWORD MyType[4]

Delphi declares arrays as the range of elements, so the same declaration would be

MyType = Array [0..3] of DWord;

Method 2:

Alternatively, the number of elements may be specified by a constant, e.g

#define NumberOfElements 5 



//...



typedef struct _MyRec { 



  DWORD MyArray[NumberOfElements] 



} MyRec, *PMyRec 

The same declaration in Delphi is

Const



  NumberOfElements = 5







  //...







Type



  TmyArray = Record



    MyArray : Array [0..NumberOfElements-1] of DWord;



  end;

Remember, the range of the array is 0..NumberOfElements-1, but not0..NumberOfElements.


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