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DataGrid入门经典

发表于2004/7/1 10:01:00  786人阅读

分类: ASP。NET的经典收藏

DataGrid入门经典


作者:wyhw  发表时间:2003-5-11   推荐程度:   查看作者信息以及作者文集

如何在DataGrid控件中实现编辑、删除、分类以及分页操作

文章出处:http://www.c-sharpcorner.com/asp/Code/northwindLC.asp
前言:
这篇文章主要介绍如何在DataGrid控件中实现编辑、删除、分类以及分页操作。为了实现我们的意图,我们使用SqlServer2000自带的NorthWind数据库。程序分为两部分:
1.包含HTML代码的.ASPX文件
2.包含所有逻辑及方法的后台C#类文件
代码:
ASPX文件:
在这里我们设计了一个DataGrid对象,我为一些属性和方法作了注解。它就变得如此的简单:
    <asp:DataGrid id="MyDataGrid" style="Z-INDEX: 101; LEFT: 16px; POSITION: absolute; TOP: 104px" runat="server"  
        BorderStyle="Ridge"  
        GridLines="None"  
        BorderWidth="2px"  
        BorderColor="White"  
        BackColor="White"  
        CellPadding="3"  
        CellSpacing="1"  
        AllowPaging="True"     // AllowPaging属性的"True"时, 可进行分页操作
        AllowSorting="True"      // 这是分类属性
        PageSize="15"       //设每页25条记录  
        PagerStyle-Mode="NextPrev"      //有2种模式风格:next previous和page numberin
        PagerStyle-NextPageText="Next"  
        PagerStyle-PrevPageText="Previous"  
        PagerStyle-HorizontalAlign="Center"  
        PagerStyle-Position="TopAndBottom"  
        DataKeyField="ProductID"       // DataGrid的每条记录都包含一个ProductID字段
        OnPageIndexChanged="MyDataGrid_PageIndexChanged"    // 当用户进行翻页操作时就激活MyDataGrid_PageIndexChanged函数(function)  
        OnSortCommand="Sort_Grid"                           //当用户对DataGrid分类时激活Sort_Grid(function)函数
        OnDeleteCommand="MyDataGrid_Delete"                 //这一事件激活MyDataGrid_Delete函数(function)删除一条记录
        OnUpdateCommand="MyDataGrid_Update"                 //这一事件激活MyDataGrid_Update函数(function)更新一条记录
        OnCancelCommand="MyDataGrid_Cancel                  //这一事件激活MyDataGrid_Cancel函数(function)取消当前操作
        OnEditCommand="MyDataGrid_Edit"                     //这一事件激活MyDataGrid_Edit函数(function)编辑一条记录
        AutoGenerateColumns="False"                         // 设置自动产生行为"False"
        HorizontalAlign="Left">  
        <FooterStyle ForeColor= "Black"BackColor="#C6C3C6"></FooterStyle>  
        <HeaderStyle Font-Bold= "True" ForeColor= "#E7E7FF"BackColor="#4A3C8C"></HeaderStyle>  
        <PagerStyle NextPageText="Next" PrevPageText="Previous" HorizontalAlign="Right" ForeColor="Black"   
                            Position= "TopAndBottom"BackColor="#C6C3C6"></PagerStyle>  
        <SelectedItemStyle Font-Bold= "True" ForeColor= "White"BackColor="#9471DE"></SelectedItemStyle>  
        <ItemStyle ForeColor= "Black"BackColor="#DEDFDE"></ItemStyle>  

   <Columns>  
     <asp:EditCommandColumn ButtonType="LinkButton" UpdateText= "<img border=0 src=ok.gif>" CancelText= "<imgborder=0 src=cancel.gif>" EditText= "<imgborder=0src=edit.gif>"></asp:EditCommandColumn>  
     <asp:ButtonColumn Text= "<img border= 0src= delete.gif>"CommandName="Delete"></asp:ButtonColumn>  
     <asp:BoundColumn DataField= "ProductID" SortExpression="ProductID" ReadOnly="True" HeaderText= "ProductID"></asp:BoundColumn>  
     <asp:BoundColumn DataField= "ProductName" SortExpression="ProductName" HeaderText= "ProductName"></asp:BoundColumn>  
     <asp:BoundColumn DataField="QuantityPerUnit" SortExpression="QuantityPerUnit" HeaderText= "Quantity PerUnit"></asp:BoundColumn>  
     <asp:BoundColumn DataField="UnitPrice" SortExpression="UnitPrice" HeaderText= "Unit Price"DataFormatString="{0:c}"></asp:BoundColumn>  
     <asp:BoundColumn DataField="UnitsInStock" SortExpression="UnitsInStock" HeaderText= "Units InStock"></asp:BoundColumn>  
     <asp:BoundColumn DataField="UnitsOnOrder" SortExpression="UnitsOnOrder" HeaderText= "Units OnOrder"></asp:BoundColumn>  
     <asp:BoundColumn DataField= "ReorderLevel" SortExpression="ReorderLevel" HeaderText= "ReorderLevel"></asp:BoundColumn>  
     <asp:TemplateColumn HeaderText="Discontinued" SortExpression="Discontinued">  
      <ItemTemplate>  
       <asp:CheckBox id= "Discontinued" runat="server" Checked= '<%# DataBinder.Eval(Container.DataItem, "Discontinued")%>' />  
      </ItemTemplate>  
     </asp:TemplateColumn>  
    </Columns>  
</asp:DataGrid>  
你看,是不是不难?关键在于我们常动手动脑。多看资料也很关键哦!
C#后台程序:
让我们先看一段程序:
   private void Page_Load(object sender, System.EventArgs e)  
   {  
       if(!IsPostBack)  
       {  
            BindGrid();  
       }  
   }  
上面展现的是一种非常好的技术,当页面不是PostBack状态时,就绑定数据。这意味着,一旦页面被请求数据将被绑定。
继续看程序:
/// <summary>  
      /// 这个函数返回关于产品细节的DataSet  
  /// </summary>  
  ///<returns></returns>  
  private DataSet GetProductData()  
  {  
   ///SQLStatement是一个SQL语句(string型的)  
   string SQLStatement="SELECT  Products.ProductID, Products.ProductName, Products.QuantityPerUnit, Products.UnitPrice, "+  
                      "Products.UnitsInStock, Products.UnitsOnOrder, Products.ReorderLevel, Products.Discontinued "+  
       "FROM  Products"; :
   ///声明 SqlConnection对象:myConnection
  SqlConnection myConnection=new SqlConnection(@"server=(local)/NetSDK;”+
”database=NorthWind;uid=northwind;pwd=northwind;");  
///声明Command对象:myCommand  
   SqlDataAdapter myCommand = new SqlDataAdapter(SQLStatement,myConnection);  
///设置Command命令的类型为Text类型  
   myCommand.SelectCommand.CommandType=CommandType.Text;  
   ///创建DataSet对象实例  
   myDataSet = new DataSet();  
   ///把从表Products返回的数据填充myData  
   myCommand.Fill(myDataSet, "Products");  
   ///最后返回myDataSet对象  
   return myDataSet;  
  }  
这段代码执行给定的SQL语句访问数据库,私有函数GetProductData返回一个包含数据记录的DataSet。下一步,让我们看如何编辑记录:
/// <summary>  
     /// 这个函数只有当用户点击Edit按钮时才会被激活  
  /// </summary>  
  /// <paramname="sender"></param>  
  /// <paramname="E"></param>  
  protected void MyDataGrid_Edit(Object sender, DataGridCommandEventArgs E)  
  {  
     ///找出被选定项目的索引(ItemIndex),并且进一步绑定数据  
     MyDataGrid.EditItemIndex = (int)E.Item.ItemIndex;  
     BindGrid();  
  }
通过上面代码所附带的注解大家也能明白MyDataGrid_Edit函数的功能:当用户点击Edit按钮时激活MyDataGrid_Edit函数,并且程序找到所要编辑的记录的索引,把该索引号分配给DataGrid的EditItemIndex属性。
如果用户点击Cancel按钮,将调用我们在上面的.aspx文件中提到的MyDataGrid_Cancel函数,程序如果分配给DataGrid属性 EditItemIndex的值为-1,就意味着用户没有选择Edit,程序如下:
/// <summary>  
     /// 用户点击Cancel按钮时激活MyDataGrid函数
  /// </summary>  
  /// <paramname="sender"></param>  
  /// <paramname="E"></param>  
  protected void MyDataGrid_Cancel(Object sender, DataGridCommandEventArgs E)  
  {  
      MyDataGrid.EditItemIndex = -1;  
      BindGrid();  
  }
下面的代码像我们展现了如何从DataGrid中删除一条选中的记录。我们知道Web控件DataGrid有一DataKeyField属性,事实上它就包含了每条记录的ProductID字段值。您一定会问如何通过DataKeyField属性得到DataGrid中选中记录的ProductID值呢?下面这段代码会让您释然的:
-----  
int ProductID =(int)MyDataGrid.DataKeys[(int)E.Item.ItemIndex];  
-----
MyDataGrid_Delete函数代码如下:
        /// <summary>
        ///从DataSet中删除一条记录
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sender"></param>
        /// <param name="E"></param>
        protected void MyDataGrid_Delete(Object sender, DataGridCommandEventArgs E)
{  
            int ProductID =(int)MyDataGrid.DataKeys[(int)E.Item.ItemIndex];
            string SQLStatement="Delete Products WHERE ProductID="+ProductID;
            string myConnectionString = "server=localhost;uid=sa;pwd=;database=NorthWind";

            SqlConnection myConnection = new SqlConnection(myConnectionString);
            SqlCommand myCommand = new SqlCommand (SQLStatement,myConnection);             
             
            myCommand.CommandTimeout = 15;
            myCommand.CommandType=CommandType.Text;

            try
            {
                myConnection.Open();
                myCommand.ExecuteNonQuery();
                myConnection.Close();
            }
            catch(Exception ee)
            {
                throw ee;
            }
            MyDataGrid.EditItemIndex = -1;
            BindGrid();                 
    }
下面的代码用来更新NorthWind数据库的产品信息,
我们可以使用下面这项技术检索值:
-------------------
bool Discon=((CheckBox)E.Item.FindControl("Discontinued")).Checked;  
-------------------
这时我们使用FinControl()方法就能得到Discontinued CheckBox的值.  
        /// <summary>
        ///更新记录
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sender"></param>
        /// <param name="E"></param>
        protected void MyDataGrid_Update(Object sender, DataGridCommandEventArgs E)
        {
            int ProductID =(int)MyDataGrid.DataKeys[(int)E.Item.ItemIndex];  
            string ProductName = ((TextBox)E.Item.Cells[3].Controls[0]).Text;  
            string QuantityPerUnit=((TextBox)E.Item.Cells[4].Controls[0]).Text;  
            string UnitPrice = ((TextBox)E.Item.Cells[5].Controls[0]).Text;  
            Int16 UnitsInStock=Int16.Parse(((TextBox)E.Item.Cells[6].Controls[0]).Text);  
            Int16 UnitsOnOrder=Int16.Parse(((TextBox)E.Item.Cells[7].Controls[0]).Text);  
            Int16 ReorderLevel=Int16.Parse(((TextBox)E.Item.Cells[8].Controls[0]).Text);  
            bool Discon=((CheckBox)E.Item.FindControl("Discontinued")).Checked;  
            int result;  

            if(!Discon)
            {
                result=0;
            }
            else
            {
                result=1;
            }
            string SQLStatement="UPDATE    Products "+
                "SET  ProductName='"+ProductName+"', "+
                "QuantityPerUnit='"+QuantityPerUnit+"', "+
                "UnitPrice ="+UnitPrice.Substring(UnitPrice.IndexOf("¥")+1)+", "+
                "UnitsInStock ="+UnitsInStock+", "+  
                "UnitsOnOrder ="+UnitsOnOrder+", "+  
                "ReorderLevel ="+ReorderLevel+", "+  
                "Discontinued ="+result+
                " WHERE     ProductID ="+ProductID;

                string myConnectionString = "server=localhost;uid=xjb;pwd=xjb;database=Northwind";
            SqlConnection myConnection = new SqlConnection(myConnectionString);  
            SqlCommand myCommand = new SqlCommand(SQLStatement,myConnection);             
             
            myCommand.CommandTimeout = 15;
            myCommand.CommandType = CommandType.Text;         

            try
            {
                myConnection.Open();
                myCommand.ExecuteNonQuery();
                myConnection.Close();
            }
            catch(Exception ee)
            {
                throw ee ;
            }

            MyDataGrid.EditItemIndex = -1;
            BindGrid();
        }

接下来的BindGrid()调用私有函数GetProductData取得DataSet对象并绑定到DataGrid控件。
/// <summary>  
/// 接受数据库数据并再次绑定
/// </summary>  
  protected void BindGrid()  
  {  
   MyDataGrid.DataSource=GetProductData().Tables["Products"].DefaultView;  
   MyDataGrid.DataBind();  
  }
用户在DataGrid中向前或向后移动时激活MyDataGrid_PageIndexChanged事件,因为DataGrid 不能自动的获取新页的索引号,所以我们只能手动取得索引号。  
        /// <summary>
        /// 分页操作
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sender"></param>
        /// <param name="e"></param>
        protected void MyDataGrid_PageIndexChanged(object source, DataGridPageChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            MyDataGrid.CurrentPageIndex=e.NewPageIndex;
            BindGrid();
        }
     用户在任何时候想对数据分类时,就激活下面的Sort_Grid事件。例如,如果用户点击field headers,事件就将被激活,并且把数据分成我们想要的分类。 我们需要DataView对象去为e.SortExpression.ToString()方法分类,返回的是被点击域标题的分类。  
/// <summary>
/// 分类
/// </summary>
/// <param name="sender"></param>
/// <param name="e"></param>
protected void Sort_Grid(Object sender, DataGridSortCommandEventArgs e)  
{
     
    DataView dv= new DataView(GetProductData().Tables["Products"]);
    dv.Sort= e.SortExpression.ToString();
    MyDataGrid.DataSource=dv;
    MyDataGrid.DataBind();             
}

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