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ORACLE常用傻瓜問題1000問(之四)

发表于2004/7/18 12:05:00  411人阅读

分类: ORACLE

虚擬字段
133. CURRVAL 和 nextval
  为表创建序列
  CREATE SEQUENCE EMPSEQ ... ;
  SELECT empseq.currval FROM DUAL ;
  自动插入序列的数值
  INSERT INTO emp
    VALUES (empseq.nextval, 'LEWIS', 'CLERK',
        7902, SYSDATE, 1200, NULL, 20) ;

134. ROWNUM
  按设定排序的行的序号
  SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ROWNUM < 10 ;

135. ROWID
  返回行的物理地址
  SELECT ROWID, ename FROM emp WHERE deptno = 20 ;

136. 将N秒转换为时分秒格式?
  set serverout on
  declare
  N number := 1000000;
  ret varchar2(100);
  begin
  ret := trunc(n/3600) || '小时' || to_char(to_date(mod(n,3600),'sssss'),'fmmi"分  "ss"秒"') ;
  dbms_output.put_line(ret);
  end;

137. 如何查询做比较大的排序的进程?
  SELECT b.tablespace, b.segfile#, b.segblk#, b.blocks, a.sid, a.serial#,
  a.username, a.osuser, a.status
  FROM v$session a,v$sort_usage b
  WHERE a.saddr = b.session_addr
  ORDER BY b.tablespace, b.segfile#, b.segblk#, b.blocks ;

138. 如何查询做比较大的排序的进程的SQL语句?
  select /*+ ORDERED */ sql_text from v$sqltext a
  where a.hash_value = (
  select sql_hash_value from v$session b
  where b.sid = &sid and b.serial# = &serial)
  order by piece asc ;

139. 如何查找重复记录?
  SELECT * FROM TABLE_NAME
  WHERE ROWID!=(SELECT MAX(ROWID) FROM TABLE_NAME D
  WHERE TABLE_NAME.COL1=D.COL1 AND TABLE_NAME.COL2=D.COL2);

140. 如何删除重复记录?
  DELETE FROM TABLE_NAME
  WHERE ROWID!=(SELECT MAX(ROWID) FROM TABLE_NAME D
  WHERE TABLE_NAME.COL1=D.COL1 AND TABLE_NAME.COL2=D.COL2);

141. 如何快速编译所有视图?
  SQL >SPOOL VIEW1.SQL
  SQL >SELECT ‘ALTER VIEW ‘||TNAME||’
  COMPILE;’ FROM TAB;
  SQL >SPOOL OFF
  然后执行VIEW1.SQL即可。
  SQL >@VIEW1.SQL;

142. ORA-01555 SNAPSHOT TOO OLD的解决办法
  增加MINEXTENTS的值,增加区的大小,设置一个高的OPTIMAL值。

143. 事务要求的回滚段空间不够,表现为表空间用满(ORA-01560错误),回滚段扩展到达参数   MAXEXTENTS的值(ORA-01628)的解决办法.
  向回滚段表空间添加文件或使已有的文件变大;增加MAXEXTENTS的值。

144. 如何加密ORACLE的存储过程?
  下列存储过程内容放在AA.SQL文件中
  create or replace procedure testCCB(i in number) as
  begin
  dbms_output.put_line('输入参数是'||to_char(i));
  end;

  SQL>wrap iname=a.sql;
  PL/SQL Wrapper: Release 8.1.7.0.0 - Production on Tue Nov 27 22:26:48 2001
  Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1993, 2000. All Rights Reserved.
  Processing AA.sql to AA.plb
  运行AA.plb
  SQL> @AA.plb ;

145. 如何监控事例的等待?
  select event,sum(decode(wait_Time,0,0,1)) "Prev",
  sum(decode(wait_Time,0,1,0)) "Curr",count(*) "Tot"
  from v$session_Wait
  group by event order by 4;

146. 如何回滚段的争用情况?
  select name, waits, gets, waits/gets "Ratio"
  from v$rollstat C, v$rollname D
  where C.usn = D.usn;

147. 如何监控表空间的 I/O 比例?
  select B.tablespace_name name,B.file_name "file",A.phyrds pyr,
  A.phyblkrd pbr,A.phywrts pyw, A.phyblkwrt pbw
  from v$filestat A, dba_data_files B
  where A.file# = B.file_id
  order by B.tablespace_name;

148. 如何监控文件系统的 I/O 比例?
  select substr(C.file#,1,2) "#", substr(C.name,1,30) "Name",
  C.status, C.bytes, D.phyrds, D.phywrts
  from v$datafile C, v$filestat D
  where C.file# = D.file#;

149. 如何在某个用户下找所有的索引?
  select user_indexes.table_name, user_indexes.index_name,uniqueness, column_name
  from user_ind_columns, user_indexes
  where user_ind_columns.index_name = user_indexes.index_name
  and user_ind_columns.table_name = user_indexes.table_name
  order by user_indexes.table_type, user_indexes.table_name,
  user_indexes.index_name, column_position;

150. 如何监控 SGA 的命中率?
  select a.value + b.value "logical_reads", c.value "phys_reads",
  round(100 * ((a.value+b.value)-c.value) / (a.value+b.value)) "BUFFER HIT RATIO"
  from v$sysstat a, v$sysstat b, v$sysstat c
  where a.statistic# = 38 and b.statistic# = 39
  and c.statistic# = 40;

151. 如何监控 SGA 中字典缓冲区的命中率?
  select parameter, gets,Getmisses , getmisses/(gets+getmisses)*100 "miss ratio",
  (1-(sum(getmisses)/ (sum(gets)+sum(getmisses))))*100 "Hit ratio"
  from v$rowcache
  where gets+getmisses <>0
  group by parameter, gets, getmisses;

152. 如何监控 SGA 中共享缓存区的命中率,应该小于1% ?
  select sum(pins) "Total Pins", sum(reloads) "Total Reloads",
  sum(reloads)/sum(pins) *100 libcache
  from v$librarycache;

  select sum(pinhits-reloads)/sum(pins) "hit radio",sum(reloads)/sum(pins)  "reload percent"
  from v$librarycache;

153. 如何显示所有数据库对象的类别和大小?
  select count(name) num_instances ,type ,sum(source_size) source_size ,
  sum(parsed_size) parsed_size ,sum(code_size) code_size ,sum(error_size)  error_size,
  sum(source_size) +sum(parsed_size) +sum(code_size) +sum(error_size)  size_required
  from dba_object_size
  group by type order by 2;

154. 监控 SGA 中重做日志缓存区的命中率,应该小于1%
  SELECT name, gets, misses, immediate_gets, immediate_misses,
  Decode(gets,0,0,misses/gets*100) ratio1,
  Decode(immediate_gets+immediate_misses,0,0,
  immediate_misses/(immediate_gets+immediate_misses)*100) ratio2
  FROM v$latch WHERE name IN ('redo allocation', 'redo copy');

155. 监控内存和硬盘的排序比率,最好使它小于 .10,增加 sort_area_size
  SELECT name, value FROM v$sysstat WHERE name IN ('sorts (memory)', 'sorts   (disk)');


156. 如何监控当前数据库谁在运行什么SQL语句?
  SELECT osuser, username, sql_text from v$session a, v$sqltext b
  where a.sql_address =b.address order by address, piece;

157. 如何监控字典缓冲区?
  SELECT (SUM(PINS - RELOADS)) / SUM(PINS) "LIB CACHE" FROM V$LIBRARYCACHE;
  SELECT (SUM(GETS - GETMISSES - USAGE - FIXED)) / SUM(GETS) "ROW CACHE" FROM  V$ROWCACHE;
  SELECT SUM(PINS) "EXECUTIONS", SUM(RELOADS) "CACHE MISSES WHILE EXECUTING" FROM  V$LIBRARYCACHE;
  后者除以前者,此比率小于1%,接近0%为好。

  SELECT SUM(GETS) "DICTIONARY GETS",SUM(GETMISSES) "DICTIONARY CACHE GET MISSES"
  FROM V$ROWCACHE


158. 监控 MTS
  select busy/(busy+idle) "shared servers busy" from v$dispatcher;
  此值大于0.5时,参数需加大
  select sum(wait)/sum(totalq) "dispatcher waits" from v$queue where  type='dispatcher';
  select count(*) from v$dispatcher;
  select servers_highwater from v$mts;
  servers_highwater接近mts_max_servers时,参数需加大

159. 如何知道当前用户的ID号?
  SQL>SHOW USER;
  OR
  SQL>select user from dual;

160. 如何查看碎片程度高的表?
  SELECT segment_name table_name , COUNT(*) extents
  FROM dba_segments WHERE owner NOT IN ('SYS', 'SYSTEM') GROUP BY segment_name
  HAVING COUNT(*) = (SELECT MAX( COUNT(*) ) FROM dba_segments GROUP BY    segment_name);

162. 如何知道表在表空间中的存储情况?
  select segment_name,sum(bytes),count(*) ext_quan from dba_extents where
  tablespace_name='&tablespace_name' and segment_type='TABLE' group by    tablespace_name,segment_name;

163. 如何知道索引在表空间中的存储情况?
  select segment_name,count(*) from dba_extents where segment_type='INDEX' and    owner='&owner'
  group by segment_name;

164、如何知道使用CPU多的用户session?
  11是cpu used by this session

  select a.sid,spid,status,substr(a.program,1,40)    prog,a.terminal,osuser,value/60/100 value
  from v$session a,v$process b,v$sesstat c
  where c.statistic#=11 and c.sid=a.sid and a.paddr=b.addr order by value desc;

165. 如何知道监听器日志文件?
  以8I为例
  $ORACLE_HOME/NETWORK/LOG/LISTENER.LOG

166. 如何知道监听器参数文件?
  以8I为例
  $ORACLE_HOME/NETWORK/ADMIN/LISTENER.ORA

167. 如何知道TNS 连接文件?
  以8I为例
  $ORACLE_HOME/NETWORK/ADMIN/TNSNAMES.ORA

168. 如何知道Sql*Net 环境文件?
  以8I为例
  $ORACLE_HOME/NETWORK/ADMIN/SQLNET.ORA

169. 如何知道警告日志文件?
  以8I为例
  $ORACLE_HOME/ADMIN/SID/BDUMP/SIDALRT.LOG

170. 如何知道基本结构?
  以8I为例
  $ORACLE_HOME/RDBMS/ADMIN/STANDARD.SQL

171. 如何知道建立数据字典视图?
  以8I为例
  $ORACLE_HOME/RDBMS/ADMIN/CATALOG.SQL

172. 如何知道建立审计用数据字典视图?
  以8I为例
  $ORACLE_HOME/RDBMS/ADMIN/CATAUDIT.SQL

173. 如何知道建立快照用数据字典视图?
  以8I为例
  $ORACLE_HOME/RDBMS/ADMIN/CATSNAP.SQL
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