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Java网络编程4

发表于2004/2/5 0:47:00  822人阅读

 

ServerSocket

  由于SSClient使用了流套接字,所以服务程序也要使用流套接字。这就要创建一个ServerSocket对象,ServerSocket有几个构造函数,最简单的是ServerSocket(int port),当使用ServerSocket(int port)创建一个ServerSocket对象,port参数传递端口号,这个端口就是服务器监听连接请求的端口,如果在这时出现错误将抛出IOException异常对象,否则将创建ServerSocket对象并开始准备接收连接请求。

  接下来服务程序进入无限循环之中,无限循环从调用ServerSocketaccept()方法开始,在调用开始后accept()方法将导致调用线程阻塞直到连接建立。在建立连接后accept()返回一个最近创建的Socket对象,该Socket对象绑定了客户程序的IP地址或端口号。

  由于存在单个服务程序与多个客户程序通讯的可能,所以服务程序响应客户程序不应该花很多时间,否则客户程序在得到服务前有可能花很多时间来等待通讯的建立,然而服务程序和客户程序的会话有可能是很长的(这与电话类似),因此为加快对客户程序连接请求的响应,典型的方法是服务器主机运行一个后台线程,这个后台线程处理服务程序和客户程序的通讯。

  为了示范我们在上面谈到的慨念并完成SSClient程序,下面我们创建一个SSServer程序,程序将创建一个ServerSocket对象来监听端口10000的连接请求,如果成功服务程序将等待连接输入,开始一个线程处理连接,并响应来自客户程序的命令。下面就是这段程序的代码:

  Listing 3: SSServer.java

// SSServer.java

import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.util.*;

class SSServer
{
 public static void main (String [] args) throws IOException
 { 
  System.out.println ("Server starting.../n");

  // Create a server socket that listens for incoming connection
  // requests on port 10000.

  ServerSocket server = new ServerSocket (10000);

  while (true)
  {
   // Listen for incoming connection requests from client
   // programs, establish a connection, and return a Socket
   // object that represents this connection.

   Socket s = server.accept ();

   System.out.println ("Accepting Connection.../n");

   // Start a thread to handle the connection.

   new ServerThread (s).start ();
  }
 }
}

class ServerThread extends Thread
{
 private Socket s;

 ServerThread (Socket s)
 {
  this.s = s;
 }

 public void run ()
 {
  BufferedReader br = null;
  PrintWriter pw = null;

  try
  {
   // Create an input stream reader that chains to the socket's
   // byte-oriented input stream. The input stream reader
   // converts bytes read from the socket to characters. The
   // conversion is based on the platform's default character
   // set.

   InputStreamReader isr;
   isr = new InputStreamReader (s.getInputStream ());

   // Create a buffered reader that chains to the input stream
   // reader. The buffered reader supplies a convenient method
   // for reading entire lines of text.

   br = new BufferedReader (isr);

   // Create a print writer that chains to the socket's byte-
   // oriented output stream. The print writer creates an
   // intermediate output stream writer that converts
   // characters sent to the socket to bytes. The conversion
   // is based on the platform's default character set.

   pw = new PrintWriter (s.getOutputStream (), true);

   // Create a calendar that makes it possible to obtain date
   // and time information.

   Calendar c = Calendar.getInstance ();

 // Because the client program may send multiple commands, a
   // loop is required. Keep looping until the client either
   // explicitly requests termination by sending a command
   // beginning with letters BYE or implicitly requests
   // termination by closing its output stream.

   do
   {
    // Obtain the client program's next command.

    String cmd = br.readLine ();

    // Exit if client program has closed its output stream.

    if (cmd == null)
     break;
  
    // Convert command to uppercase, for ease of comparison.

    cmd = cmd.toUpperCase ();

    // If client program sends BYE command, terminate.

    if (cmd.startsWith ("BYE"))
     break;

    // If client program sends DATE or TIME command, return
    // current date/time to the client program.

    if (cmd.startsWith ("DATE") || cmd.startsWith ("TIME"))
     pw.println (c.getTime ().toString ());

    // If client program sends DOM (Day Of Month) command,
    // return current day of month to the client program.

    if (cmd.startsWith ("DOM"))
     pw.println ("" + c.get (Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH));

    // If client program sends DOW (Day Of Week) command,
    // return current weekday (as a string) to the client
    // program.

    if (cmd.startsWith ("DOW"))
     switch (c.get (Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK))
 {
     case Calendar.SUNDAY : pw.println ("SUNDAY");
      break;

     case Calendar.MONDAY : pw.println ("MONDAY");
      break;

     case Calendar.TUESDAY : pw.println ("TUESDAY");
      break;

     case Calendar.WEDNESDAY: pw.println ("WEDNESDAY");
      break;

     case Calendar.THURSDAY : pw.println ("THURSDAY");
      break;

     case Calendar.FRIDAY : pw.println ("FRIDAY");
      break;

     case Calendar.SATURDAY : pw.println ("SATURDAY");
    }

    // If client program sends DOY (Day of Year) command,
    // return current day of year to the client program.

    if (cmd.startsWith ("DOY"))
     pw.println ("" + c.get (Calendar.DAY_OF_YEAR));

     // If client program sends PAUSE command, sleep for three
     // seconds.
 
    if (cmd.startsWith ("PAUSE"))
    try
    {
     Thread.sleep (3000);
    }
    catch (InterruptedException e)
    {
    }
   }
   while (true);
   {
   catch (IOException e)
   {
       System.out.println (e.toString ());
   }
   finally
   {
    System.out.println ("Closing Connection.../n");
    try
    {
     if (br != null)
      br.close ();

      if (pw != null)
       pw.close ();

      if (s != null)
       s.close ();
    }
    catch (IOException e)
    {
    }
   }
  }
}


  运行这段程序将得到下面的输出:

Server starting...
Accepting Connection...
Closing Connection...


  SSServer的源代码声明了一对类:SSServer ServerThreadSSServermain()方法创建了一个ServerSocket对象来监听端口10000上的连接请求,如果成功, SSServer进入一个无限循环中,交替调用ServerSocket accept() 方法来等待连接请求,同时启动后台线程处理连接(accept()返回的请求)。线程由ServerThread继承的start()方法开始,并执行ServerThreadrun()方法中的代码。

  一旦run()方法运行,线程将创建BufferedReader, PrintWriter Calendar对象并进入一个循环,这个循环由读(通过BufferedReader readLine())来自客户程序的一行文本开始,文本(命令)存储在cmd引用的string对象中,如果客户程序过早的关闭输出流,会发生什么呢?答案是:cmd将得不到赋值。

  注意必须考虑到这种情况:在服务程序正在读输入流时,客户程序关闭了输出流,如果没有对这种情况进行处理,那么程序将产生异常。

  一旦编译了SSServer的源代码,通过输入Java SSServer来运行程序,在开始运行SSServer后,就可以运行一个或多个SSClient程序。
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