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源码分析:HashMap

发表于2004/9/20 22:43:00  2820人阅读

HashMap是Java新Collection Framework中用来代替HashTable的一个实现,HashMap和HashTable的区别是: HashMap是未经同步的,而且允许null值。HashTable继承Dictionary,而且使用了Enumeration,所以被建议不要使用。
HashMap的声明如下:
public class HashMap extends AbstractMap implements Map, Cloneable,Serializable
有关AbstractMap:http://blog.csdn.net/treeroot/archive/2004/09/20/110343.aspx
有关Map:http://blog.csdn.net/treeroot/archive/2004/09/20/110331.aspx
有关Cloneable:http://blog.csdn.net/treeroot/archive/2004/09/07/96936.aspx
这个类比较复杂,这里只是重点分析了几个方法,特别是后面涉及到很多内部类都没有解释
不过都比较简单。

static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 16; 默认初始化大小

static final int MAXIMUM_CAPACITY = 1 << 30; 最大初始化大小

static final float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR = 0.75f; 默认加载因子

transient Entry[] table; 一个Entry类型的数组,数组的长度为2的指数。

transient int size; 映射的个数

int threshold; 下一次扩容时的值

final float loadFactor; 加载因子

transient volatile int modCount; 修改次数

public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
   if (initialCapacity < 0)
     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +initialCapacity);
   if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
     initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
   if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +loadFactor);
   int capacity = 1;
   while (capacity < initialCapacity)
     capacity <<= 1;
   this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
   threshold = (int)(capacity * loadFactor);
   table = new Entry[capacity];
   init();
}

public HashMap(int initialCapacity) {
   this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
}

public HashMap() {
   this.loadFactor = DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR;
   threshold = (int)(DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY);
      注意:这里应该是一个失误! 应该是:threshold =(int)(DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY * loadFactor);
   table = new Entry[DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY];
   init();
}

public HashMap(Map m) {
   this(Math.max((int) (m.size() / DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR) + 1, DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY),                                   DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
   putAllForCreate(m);
}

void init() {}

static final Object NULL_KEY = new Object();

static Object maskNull(Object key){
   return (key == null ? NULL_KEY : key);
}

static Object unmaskNull(Object key) {
   return (key == NULL_KEY ? null : key);
}

static int hash(Object x) {
   int h = x.hashCode();
   h += ~(h << 9);
   h ^= (h >>> 14);
   h += (h << 4);
   h ^= (h >>> 10);
return h;
}
在HashTable中没有这个方法,也就是说HashTable中是直接用对象的hashCode值,但是HashMap做了改进 用这个算法来获得哈希值。

static boolean eq(Object x, Object y) {
   return x == y || x.equals(y);
}

static int indexFor(int h, int length) {
   return h & (length-1);
}
根据哈希值和数组的长度来返回该hash值在数组中的位置,只是简单的与关系。

public int size() {
   return size;
}

public boolean isEmpty() {
  return size == 0;
}

public Object get(Object key) {
   Object k = maskNull(key);
   int hash = hash(k);
   int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
   Entry e = table[i];
   while (true) {
     if (e == null) return e;
     if (e.hash == hash && eq(k, e.key)) return e.value;
     e = e.next;
   }
}
这个方法是获取数据的方法,首先获得哈希值,这里把null值掩饰了,并且hash值经过函数hash()修正。 然后计算该哈希值在数组中的索引值。如果该索引处的引用为null,表示HashMap中不存在这个映射。 否则的话遍历整个链表,这里找到了就返回,如果没有找到就遍历到链表末尾,返回null。这里的比较是这样的:e.hash==hash && eq(k,e.key) 也就是说如果hash不同就肯定认为不相等,eq就被短路了,只有在 hash相同的情况下才调用equals方法。现在我们该明白Object中说的如果两个对象equals返回true,他们的 hashCode应该相同的道理了吧。假如两个对象调用equals返回true,但是hashCode不一样,那么在HashMap 里就认为他们不相等。

public boolean containsKey(Object key) {
   Object k = maskNull(key);
   int hash = hash(k);
   int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
   Entry e = table[i];
   while (e != null) {
     if (e.hash == hash && eq(k, e.key)) return true;
     e = e.next;
   }
  return false;
}
这个方法比上面的简单,先找到哈希位置,再遍历整个链表,如果找到就返回true。

Entry getEntry(Object key) {
   Object k = maskNull(key);
   int hash = hash(k);
   int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
   Entry e = table[i];
   while (e != null && !(e.hash == hash && eq(k, e.key)))
     e = e.next;
   return e;
}
这个方法根据key值返回Entry节点,也是先获得索引位置,再遍历链表,如果没有找到返回的是null。

public Object put(Object key, Object value) {
   Object k = maskNull(key);
   int hash = hash(k);
   int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
   for (Entry e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
     if (e.hash == hash && eq(k, e.key)) {
       Object oldValue = e.value;
       e.value = value;
       e.recordAccess(this);
       return oldValue;
     }
   }
   modCount++;
   addEntry(hash, k, value, i);
   return null;
}
首先获得hash索引位置,如果该位置的引用为null,那么直接插入一个映射,返回null。如果此处的引用不是null,必须遍历链表,如果找到一个相同的key,那么就更新该value,同时返回原来的value值。如果遍历完了没有找到,说明该key值不存在,还是插入一个映射。如果hash值足够离散的话,也就是说该索引没有被使用的话,那么不不用遍历链表了。相反,如果hash值不离散,极端的说如果是常数的话,所有的映射都会在这一个链表上,效率会极其低下。这里举一个最简单的例子,写两
个不同的类作为key插入到HashMap中,效率会远远不同。
class Good{
  int i;
  public Good(int i){
   this.i=i;
  }
  public boolean equals(Object o){
   return (o instanceof Good) && (this.i==((Good)o).i)
  }
  public int hashCode(){
   return i;
  }
}
class Bad{
  int i;
  public Bad(int i){
    this.i=i;
  }
  public boolean equals(Object o){
    return (o instanceof Bad) && (this.i==((Bad)o).i)
  }
  public int hashCode(){
   return 0;
  }
}
执行代码:
Map m1=new HashMap();
Map m2=new HashMap();
for(int i=0;i<100;i++){
  m1.put(new Good(i),new Integer(i)); //这里效率非常高
}
for(int i=0;i<100;i++){
  m2.put(new Bad(i),new Integer(i)); //这里几乎要崩溃
}
上面的是两个非常极端的例子,执行一下就知道差别有多大。

private void putForCreate(Object key, Object value) {
   Object k = maskNull(key);
   int hash = hash(k);
   int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
   for (Entry e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
     if (e.hash == hash && eq(k, e.key)) {
        e.value = value;
        return;
     }
   }
   createEntry(hash, k, value, i);
}

void putAllForCreate(Map m) {
   for (Iterator i = m.entrySet().iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) {
     Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry) i.next();
     putForCreate(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
   }
}
上面的两个方法是被构造函数和clone方法调用的。

void resize(int newCapacity) {
   Entry[] oldTable = table;
   int oldCapacity = oldTable.length;
   if (size < threshold || oldCapacity > newCapacity)
     return;
   Entry[] newTable = new Entry[newCapacity];
   transfer(newTable);
   table = newTable;
   threshold = (int)(newCapacity * loadFactor);
}
这个方法在需要的时候重新分配空间,相当于ArrayList的ensureCapacity方法,不过这个更加复杂。

void transfer(Entry[] newTable) {
   Entry[] src = table;
   int newCapacity = newTable.length;
   for (int j = 0; j < src.length; j++) {
     Entry e = src[j];
     if (e != null) {
       src[j] = null;
       do {
          Entry next = e.next;
          int i = indexFor(e.hash, newCapacity);
          e.next = newTable[i];
          newTable[i] = e;
          e = next;
       } while (e != null);
     }
   }
}
遍历原来的数组,如果该Entry不是null的话,说明有映射,然后遍历这个链表,把所有的映射插入到新的数组中,注意这里要从新计算索引位置。

public void putAll(Map t) {
   int n = t.size();
   if (n == 0)
     return;
   if (n >= threshold) {
     n = (int)(n / loadFactor + 1);
     if (n > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
       n = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
     int capacity = table.length;
     while (capacity < n) capacity <<= 1;
       resize(capacity);
   }
   for (Iterator i = t.entrySet().iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) {
     Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry) i.next();
     put(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
   }
}
这个方法先确定是否需要扩大空间,然后循环调用put方法。

public Object remove(Object key) {
   Entry e = removeEntryForKey(key);
   return (e == null ? e : e.value);
}

Entry removeEntryForKey(Object key) {
   Object k = maskNull(key);
   int hash = hash(k);
   int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
   Entry prev = table[i];
   Entry e = prev;
   while (e != null) {  如果e==null表示不存在
     Entry next = e.next;
     if (e.hash == hash && eq(k, e.key)) {
       modCount++;
       size--;
       if (prev == e)
         table[i] = next; 链表的第一个元素就是要删除的,这里最好加一句 e.next=null.
       else
         prev.next = next; 存在但不是链表的第一个元素, 这里最好加一句 e.next=null.
       e.recordRemoval(this);
       return e;
     }
     prev = e;
     e = next;
   }
  return e;   这里其实就是return null;
}
这个方法其实也不复杂,也是遍历链表,这里建议加一句e.next=null,可以改为
if(prev==e)
  table[i]=next;
else
  prev.next=next;
e.next=null; 这一句是多加的,可以提高效率。
这里简单说明我的看法:
因为e是被删除的节点,删除它其实就是使指向它的指针指向它的后面一个节点。所以e可以作为GC回收的对象。可事e还有一个next指针指向我们的数据。如果e没有被回收,而且此时e.next指向的节点也变为没用的了,但是却有一个它的引用(e.next),所以虽然e的下一个节点没用了,但是却不能作为GC回收的对象,除非e先被回收。虽然不一定会引起很大的问题,但是至少会影响GC的回收效率。就像数据库中的外键引用一样,删除起来很麻烦呀。

Entry removeMapping(Object o) {
   if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
     return null;
   Map.Entry entry = (Map.Entry)o;
   Object k = maskNull(entry.getKey());
   int hash = hash(k);
   int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
   Entry prev = table[i];
   Entry e = prev;
   while (e != null) {
     Entry next = e.next;
     if (e.hash == hash && e.equals(entry)) {
       modCount++;
       size--;
       if (prev == e)
         table[i] = next;
       else
         prev.next = next;
       e.recordRemoval(this);
       return e;
      }
      prev = e;
      e = next;
   }
   return e;
}
这个方法和上面的一样。

public void clear() {
   modCount++;
   Entry tab[] = table;
   for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; i++)
     tab[i] = null;
   size = 0;
}
同样可以改进

public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
   if (value == null)
     return containsNullValue();
   Entry tab[] = table;
   for (int i = 0; i < tab.length ; i++)
     for (Entry e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next)
       if (value.equals(e.value)) return true;
   return false;
}

private boolean containsNullValue() {
   Entry tab[] = table;
   for (int i = 0; i < tab.length ; i++)
     for (Entry e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next)
       if (e.value == null) return true;
   return false;
}

public Object clone() {
   HashMap result = null;
   try {
     result = (HashMap)super.clone();
   }
   catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) { // assert false; }
   result.table = new Entry[table.length];
   result.entrySet = null;
   result.modCount = 0;
   result.size = 0;
   result.init();
   result.putAllForCreate(this);
   return result;
}

static class Entry implements Map.Entry {
   final Object key;
   Object value;
   final int hash;
   Entry next;
   Entry(int h, Object k, Object v, Entry n) {
     value = v;
     next = n;
     key = k;
     hash = h;
   }
   public Object getKey() {
     return unmaskNull(key);
   }
   public Object getValue() {
     return value;
   }
   public Object setValue(Object newValue) {
      Object oldValue = value;
      value = newValue;
      return oldValue;
   }
   public boolean equals(Object o) {
     if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry)) return false;
     Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry)o;
     Object k1 = getKey();
     Object k2 = e.getKey();
     if (k1 == k2 || (k1 != null && k1.equals(k2))) {
       Object v1 = getValue();
       Object v2 = e.getValue();
       if (v1 == v2 || (v1 != null && v1.equals(v2))) return true;
     }
     return false;
    }
    public int hashCode() {
      return (key==NULL_KEY ? 0 : key.hashCode()) ^ (value==null ? 0 : value.hashCode());
    }
    public String toString() {
      return getKey() + "=" + getValue();
    }
    void recordAccess(HashMap m) { }
    void recordRemoval(HashMap m) { }
}
一个静态内部类

void addEntry(int hash, Object key, Object value, int bucketIndex) {
    table[bucketIndex] = new Entry(hash, key, value, table[bucketIndex]);
    if (size++ >= threshold)
      resize(2 * table.length);
}
注意这个方法,插入连表的头。
可以写成这样更好理解:
Entry oldHead=table[bucketIndex];
Entry newHead = new Entry(hash,key,value,oldHead);
table[bucketIndex]=newHead;

void createEntry(int hash, Object key, Object value, int bucketIndex) {
   table[bucketIndex] = new Entry(hash, key, value, table[bucketIndex]);
   size++;
}

private abstract class HashIterator implements Iterator {
   Entry next;
   int expectedModCount;
   int index;
   Entry current;
   HashIterator() {
     expectedModCount = modCount;
     Entry[] t = table;
     int i = t.length;
     Entry n = null;
     if (size != 0) {
       while (i > 0 && (n = t[--i]) == null) ;
     }
     next = n;
     index = i;
   }
   public boolean hasNext() {
     return next != null;
   }
   Entry nextEntry() {
     if (modCount != expectedModCount)
       throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
     Entry e = next;
    if (e == null)
       throw new NoSuchElementException();
     Entry n = e.next;
     Entry[] t = table;
     int i = index;
     while (n == null && i > 0)
        n = t[--i]; index = i;
     next = n;
     return current = e;
   }
   public void remove() {
     if (current == null)
       throw new IllegalStateException();
     if (modCount != expectedModCount)
       throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
     Object k = current.key;
     current = null;
     HashMap.this.removeEntryForKey(k);
     expectedModCount = modCount;
   }
}

private class ValueIterator extends HashIterator {
   public Object next() {
     return nextEntry().value;
   }
}

private class KeyIterator extends HashIterator {
   public Object next() {
     return nextEntry().getKey();
   }
}

private class EntryIterator extends HashIterator {
   public Object next() {
     return nextEntry();
   }
}

Iterator newKeyIterator() {
   return new KeyIterator();
}

Iterator newValueIterator() {
   return new ValueIterator();
}

Iterator newEntryIterator() {  
   return new EntryIterator();
}

private transient Set entrySet = null;

public Set keySet() {
   Set ks = keySet;
   return (ks != null ? ks : (keySet = new KeySet()));
}

private class KeySet extends AbstractSet {
   public Iterator iterator() {
     return newKeyIterator();
   }
   public int size() {
     return size;
   }
   public boolean contains(Object o) {
     return containsKey(o);
   }
   public boolean remove(Object o) {
     return HashMap.this.removeEntryForKey(o) != null;
   }
   public void clear() {
     HashMap.this.clear();
   }
}

public Collection values() {
   Collection vs = values; return (vs != null ? vs : (values = new Values()));
}

private class Values extends AbstractCollection {
   public Iterator iterator() {
     return newValueIterator();
   }
   public int size() {
     return size;
   }
   public boolean contains(Object o) {
     return containsValue(o);
   }
   public void clear() {
     HashMap.this.clear();
   }
}

public Set entrySet() {
   Set es = entrySet;
   return (es != null ? es : (entrySet = new EntrySet()));
}

private class EntrySet extends AbstractSet {
   public Iterator iterator() {
     return newEntryIterator();
   }
   public boolean contains(Object o) {
     if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
       return false;
     Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry)o;
     Entry candidate = getEntry(e.getKey());
     return candidate != null && candidate.equals(e);
   }
   public boolean remove(Object o) {
     return removeMapping(o) != null;
   }
   public int size() {
     return size;
   }
   public void clear() {
     HashMap.this.clear();
   }
}

private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s) throws IOException {
   s.defaultWriteObject();
   s.writeInt(table.length);
   s.writeInt(size);
   for (Iterator i = entrySet().iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) {
     Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry) i.next();
     s.writeObject(e.getKey());
     s.writeObject(e.getValue());
   }
}

private static final long serialVersionUID = 362498820763181265L;

private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
   s.defaultReadObject();
   int numBuckets = s.readInt();
   table = new Entry[numBuckets];
   init();
   size = s.readInt(); for (int i=0;
   for (int i=0; i     Object key = s.readObject();
     Object value = s.readObject(); 
     putForCreate(key, value);
   }
}

int capacity() {
  return table.length;
}
float loadFactor() {
   return loadFactor;
}

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