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命令行环境学习C#指南

发表于2003/5/21 18:21:00  541人阅读

网上命令行学习c#的文章挺琐碎,所以我在这里整理一下程序,方便大家

一、安装

准备工作,该打的sp都打好,
MS要求win2k安装 Service Pack 3
NT 4.0 要Service Pack 6a
iis要5.0或者更高版本
然后到MS网站上下载安装

1)安装 Microsoft .NET Framework Redistributable Package
dotnetfx.exe 20多M,
安装所需的硬盘空间:160 MB
所需的硬盘空间:70 MB
这是.NET应用程序的运行环境

2)安装.NET Framework SDK
setup.exe 100多M
安装所需的硬盘空间:600 MB
所需的硬盘空间:370 MB
这是开发环境、文档和例子

3)安装.NET Framework Language Pack (可选)
langpack.exe 1M多
网站上的说明:NET Framework 语言包包含翻译为非英语语言的文本,如错误信息之类的文本。在非英语操作系统中运行 .NET Framework 应用程序并不需要安装语言包;但是,如果您想用英语之外的一种语言查看 .NET Framework UI 资源,就需要这种语言的语言包了。在一台计算机上可以安装多个语言包,每种语言一个语言包。

二、环境变量设置
假定你将.net framework安装在E盘,在E:/Program Files/Microsoft.NET/SDK/v1.1/Bin目录下会有个环境变量批处理文件sdkvars.bat,将它加到你的系统环境变量中或者在每次打开console时加载。我本人习惯后者,方法是复制一个console的快捷方式到桌面,右键点击,在属性中将目标该为%SystemRoot%/system32/cmd.exe /k 地址/sdkvars.bat;起始目录可以填入平时存放代码的目录 。因为在这里不支持长文件名,为方便起见我一般将sdkvars.bat复制一份为csharp.bat到根目录,所以目标中填入%SystemRoot%/system32/cmd.exe /k e:/sdkvars.bat。这样以后每次双击图标,就可以在命令行工作了。

三、命令行工具使用

用文本编辑器编辑好你的程序,然后用命令行编译之类
关于命令行的使用,下面是OReilly有本书的一段,够用了

The .NET Framework SDK contains many useful programming tools. Here, in an alphabetical list,are those we have found most useful or necessary for developing C# applications. Unless otherwise noted, the tools in this list can be found either in the /bin directory of your .NET Framework SDK installation or in the %SystemRoot%/Microsoft.NET/Framework/VERSION directory (replace VERSION with the framework version). Once the .NET Framework is installed, you can access these tools from any directory. To use any of these tools, invoke a Command Prompt window and enter the name of the desired tool. For a complete list of the available command-line switches for any given tool, enter the tool name (e.g., csc) and press the Return or Enter key.

ADepends.exe: assembly dependency list
Adepends displays all assemblies that a given assembly is dependent on to load. This is a useful C# program found among the samples in the /Tool Developers Guide directory beneath the .NET Framework or Visual Studio .NET directory tree. You need to install these samples before you can use them, because they are not installed by default.

Al.exe: assembly linking utility
Creates an assembly manifest from the modules and resources files you name. You can
also include Win32 resources files. Here's an example:
al /out:c.dll a.netmodule b.netmodule

CorDbg.exe : runtime debugger
General source-level, command-line debug utility for MSIL programs. Very useful tool for C# source debugging. Source for cordbg is available in the /Tool Developers Guide directory.

Csc.exe: C# compiler
Compiles C# sources and incorporates resource files and separately compiled modules.Also allows you to specify conditional compilation options, XML documentation, and path information. Here are some examples:
csc foo.cs /r:bar.dll /win32res:foo.res
csc foo.cs /debug /define:TEMP

DbgClr.exe: GUI debugger
Windows-based, source-level debugger. Available in the /GuiDebug directory of the .NET Framework SDK installation.

GACUtil.exe: global assembly cache utility
Allows you to install, uninstall, and list the contents of the global assembly cache. Here's an example:
gacutil /i c.dll

ILAsm.exe: MSIL assembler
Creates MSIL modules and assemblies directly from an MSIL textual representation.

ILDasm.exe : MSIL disassembler
Disassembles modules and assemblies. The default is to display a tree-style
representation, but you can also specify an output file. Here are some examples:
ildasm b.dll
ildasm b.dll /out=b.asm

InstallUtil.exe: installer utility
Executes installers and uninstallers contained within the assembly. A logfile can be written, and state information can be persisted.

Ngen.exe: native image generator
Compiles an assembly to native code and installs a native image in the local assembly cache. That native image is used each time you access the original assembly, even though the original assembly contains MSIL. If the runtime can't locate the native image,it falls back on JIT compilation. Here are some examples:
ngen foo.exe
ngen foo.dll

nmake.exe: make utility
Common utility that scripts building of multiple components and source files and tracks rebuild dependency information. See Appendix E for more information.

PEVerify.exe: portable executable verifier
Verifies that your compiler has generated type-safe MSIL. C# will always generate typesafe MSIL. Useful interop with ILASM-based programs.

RegAsm.exe: register assembly tool
Registers an assembly in the system registry. This allows COM clients to call managed methods. You can also use it to generate the registry file for future registration. Here's an example:
regasm /regfile:c.reg c.dll

RegSvcs.exe : register services utility
Registers an assembly to COM+ 1.0, and installs its typelib into an existing application. Can also generate a typelib. Here's an example:
regsvcs foo.dll /appname:comapp /tlb:newfoo.tlb

Sn.exe : shared name utility
Verifies assemblies and their key information. Also generates key files. Here's an
example:
sn -k mykey.snk

SoapSuds.exe: SoapSuds utility
Creates XML schemas for services in an assembly and creates assemblies from a
schema. You can also reference the schema via its URL. Here's an example:
soapsuds
-url:http://localhost/myapp/app.soap?wsdl
-os:app.xml

TlbExp.exe : type library exporter
Exports a COM typelib derived from the public types within the supplied assembly. Differs from regasm in that it doesn't perform any registration. Here's an example:
tlbexp /out:c.tlb c.dll

TlbImp.exe: type library importer
Creates a managed assembly from the supplied COM typelib, mapping the type
definitions to .NET types. You need to import this new assembly into your C# program for use. Here's an example:
tlbimp /out:MyOldCom.dll MyCom.tlb

Wsdl.exe: web services description language tool
Creates service descriptions and generates proxies for ASP.NET web-service methods.
See the ASP.NET documentation in the .NET Framework SDK for more detail on web
services.

WinCV.exe : windows class viewer
Searches for matching names within a supplied assembly. If none are supplied, it uses the default libraries. The namespaces and classes are displayed in a listbox, and the selected type information is displayed in another window.

Xsd.exe : XML schema definition tool
Generates XML schemas from XDR, XML files, or class information. Can also generate
DataSet or class information from a schema. Here's an example:
xsd foo.xdr
xsd bar.dll


四、学习材料

.net framework附带的documentation,samples,QuickStart Tutorials都是很好的学习材料。除此之外,网上还有很多不错的C#书籍,因为只用命令行学习,所以下面列举了几本书基本都不需要VS.net的好书;而且,更让人谢天谢地的是这几本书在网上都有英文版电子书,也省去了大家花大把银子买书回家,还要费力把书上的中文做反向工程的痛苦。

[OReilly] CSharp Essentials
书很薄,特别适合C/C++程序员,简单纲要

[OReilly] Programming CSharp 2E
涉及VS.net

[Prentice Hall] Thinkin CSharp 
网上没书评,根据java和c++看可能是重理念的书

[MS Press] Inside CSharp
微软这个系列的书都是不错的入门书
让你的学习曲线变的比较平滑

[MS Press] Programming.Microsoft.Windows.with.C#
Charles Petzold的全书,肯定是可以放在手边常翻常看的

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