编程语言

img winion_c

Eclipse界面编写实例(2)--理解布局3

发表于2004/9/29 16:57:00  4550人阅读

2.3 GridLayout

GridLayout可能是最常用的、功能最强大的标准布局类了,当然它也最复杂。GridLayout把容器里的组件摆放在一个格子里,它有许多可设置的域,并且同RowLayout类似,组件可以有相应的布局数据,称作GridDataGridLayout的强大在于它可以通过GridData来设置每一个控件。

2.3.1 GridLayout的可设置域

numColumns

numColumns 域是GridLayout的最重要的域,并且通常是第一个需要设置的域。组件从左到右摆放在列里,当numColumns + 1个组件添加到容器中时,将创建一个新行。默认只有一列。以下代码创建了由GridLayout管理的含有5个具有不同宽度的按钮的Shell,随后的列表显示了当numColumns设为1,23时的效果。

   Display display = new Display();

   Shell shell = new Shell(display);

   GridLayout gridLayout = new GridLayout();

   gridLayout.numColumns = 3;

   shell.setLayout(gridLayout);

   new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH).setText("B1");

   new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH).setText("Wide Button 2");

   new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH).setText("Button 3");

   new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH).setText("B4");

   new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH).setText("Button 5");

   shell.pack();

   shell.open();

   while (!shell.isDisposed()) {

      if (!display.readAndDispatch()) display.sleep();

   }

numColumns = 1

numColumns = 2

numColumns = 3


makeColumnsEqualWidth

makeColumnsEqualWidth域强制各列具有相同的宽度。默认为false。把上面的例子改为含有3个等宽的列,效果如下图所示(注意组件在列中左对齐,原因见后面介绍):



MarginWidth, MarginHeight, HorizontalSpacing,
以及 VerticalSpacing

GridLayout边距和间距域与RowLayout的类似,不同的是左边距和右边距统一成marginWidth,上边距和下边距统一成marginHeight。同样可以分别设置horizontalSpacingverticalSpacingRowLayout中的间距根据它的type类型设置水平间距或者垂直间距)。

2.3.2 GridData对象的域

GridDataGridLayout对应的布局数据,可以通过setLayoutData设置组件的布局数据。例如,可以采用如下代码设置按钮的GridData

   Button button1 = new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH);

   button1.setText("B1");

   button1.setLayoutData(new GridData());

       以上代码创建了一个含有默认值的GridData对象,其效果和没有设置布局数据是一样的。有两种方式可以创建含有指定域值的GridData对象。第一种方式就是直接设置各个域值,例如:

   GridData gridData = new GridData();

   gridData.horizontalAlignment = GridData.FILL;

   gridData.grabExcessHorizontalSpace = true;

   button1.setLayoutData(gridData);

第二种方式是通过利用便利的API来设置GridData的风格位:

   button1.setLayoutData(new GridData(GridData.HORIZONTAL_ALIGN_FILL | GridData.GRAB_HORIZONTAL));

       实际上,为了更方便还提供了一些风格位的组合,例如:

   button1.setLayoutData(new GridData(GridData.FILL_HORIZONTAL));

注意FILL_ 风格同时设置对齐方式和占位方式。GridData的风格位只对布尔值和枚举值有效,数字域需要直接设置。

(使用Swing者注意) 最后使用GridData时需要主要的是:不要重复使用GridData 对象。每一个由GridLayout容器管理的组件必须有单独的GridData对象。如果组件的布局数据为空,则SWT会自动创建一个单独的GridData对象。

HorizontalAlignment VerticalAlignment

       alignment域指定组件在格子里按照水平或者垂直方式摆放。可以设置以下值:

·      BEGINNING

·      CENTER

·      END

·      FILL

       默认horizontalAlignment设为BEGINNING (左对齐),verticalAlignment设为CENTER

       参考前面的五个按钮的例子,设置三列,并对Button 5设置不同的horizontalAlignment,如图:

horizontalAlignment = GridData.BEGINNING

(默认)

horizontalAlignment = GridData.CENTER

horizontalAlignment = GridData.END

horizontalAlignment = GridData.FILL

HorizontalIndent

       horizontalIndent域可以使组件向右移动指定的像素值。只有当horizontalAlignment设为BEGINNING时有效。不能通过风格位设置缩进,以下代码演示了把Button 5缩进4个像素:

  

GridData gridData = new GridData();

gridData.horizontalIndent = 4;

button5.setLayoutData(gridData);

HorizontalSpan VerticalSpan

span域可以使控件跨越几个格子,常常与FILL风格一起使用。以下代码把Button 5扩展到了两个格子:

  

GridData gridData = new GridData();

gridData.horizontalAlignment = GridData.FILL;

gridData.horizontalSpan = 2;

button5.setLayoutData(gridData);

如果要把Button 2扩展到两个格子,可以这样写:

  

GridData gridData = new GridData();

gridData.horizontalAlignment = GridData.FILL;

gridData.horizontalSpan = 2;

button2.setLayoutData(gridData);

还可以把Button 3垂直扩展两个格子:

  

GridData gridData = new GridData();

gridData.verticalAlignment = GridData.FILL;

gridData.verticalSpan = 2;

button3.setLayoutData(gridData);

GrabExcessHorizontalSpace GrabExcessVerticalSpace

grabExcessHorizontalSpacegrabExcessVerticalSpace主要用在象Text, ListCanvas这样的重量级组件上,当它们所在的容器增大时,可以使它们自动增大。例如如果设置一个Text组件可以横向扩展,那么当用户调整Shell的宽度时,Text组件会自动扩展填满新的横向空间,而同一行上的其他组件保持宽度不变。当然,当Shell变小时,设置了此属性的组件也是首先收缩的。在可以调整容器大小的环境中,很容易的就能想到设置grabExcessSpace域。作为例子,我们仍然采用前面Button 3垂直扩展两个单元格的例子,如下:

         

如果我们调整窗口的大小,那么只有窗口变大了:

         

现在设置Button 3可以横向和纵向扩展,B1B4仅纵向填充(不扩展),重新调整之后,如图:

         

这一次,Button 3在两个方向上变化了,B4只在纵向上变化,其它保持不变。这是由于设置了Button 3在纵向上扩展,最后一行变高了的结果。注意B1没有变化,尽管对它设置了纵向填充,因为它所在的行没有变化。并且Button 3还设置了横向扩展和填充,它所在的列变宽了,所以它也变宽了。以下是代码:

   Button button1 = new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH);

   button1.setText("B1");

   GridData gridData = new GridData();

   gridData.verticalAlignment = GridData.FILL;

   button1.setLayoutData(gridData);

   new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH).setText("Wide Button 2");

   Button button3 = new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH);

   button3.setText("Button 3");

   gridData = new GridData();

   gridData.verticalAlignment = GridData.FILL;

   gridData.verticalSpan = 2;

   gridData.grabExcessVerticalSpace = true;

   gridData.horizontalAlignment = GridData.FILL;

   gridData.grabExcessHorizontalSpace = true;

   button3.setLayoutData(gridData);

   Button button4 = new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH);

   button4.setText("B4");

   gridData = new GridData();

   gridData.verticalAlignment = GridData.FILL;

   button4.setLayoutData(gridData);

   new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH).setText("Button 5");

       在典型的应用程序窗口中,通常会设置至少一个组件可以扩展。如果有多于一个的组件可以扩展,那么它们平均分配扩展的空间,如图所示:

           

       最后需要注意的是,如果一个组件可以横向扩展,并且它的父容器变宽了,那么组件所在的整列都变宽了。同样如果组件可以纵向扩展,并且其父容器变高了,那么组件所在的整行都变高了。这样如果相应的行或列里有其它的组件设置了填充(fill)属性,那么这些组件也会被拉伸。具有左对齐、居中对齐、右对齐的组件不会被拉伸,它们仍然在所在的行或列里左对齐、居中对齐或右对齐。

WidthHint HeightHint

       widthHintheightHint域指示了希望组件可以具有的宽度和高度,前提是不与GridLayout其他要求约束矛盾。参见前面五个按钮、三列的例子,假设要设置Button 570像素、高40像素,代码如下:

       GridData gridData = new GridData();

       gridData.widthHint = 70;

       gridData.heightHint = 40;

       button5.setLayoutData(gridData);

       Button 5自然尺寸如左图所示,右图是70像素宽、 40像素高的图示:

                

       注意,如果Button 5horizontalAlignment设置为FILL,那么GridLayout不能满足其宽为70像素的请求。

       最后一点,在一个平台上表现好的设置,在另一个平台上可能会有差别。由于不同平台之间的字体大小和组件的自然大小不一样,因此硬编码像素值不是布局窗体的最好方法。因而,除非万不得已,尽量少用size hint


2.3.3 一个复杂的GridLayout例子

       前面列举的GridLayout例子都比较简单,只是用来说明各个域的效果如何。接下来,举一个很复杂的例子,把各个域的效果综合在一起。我们先手工画下要创建的窗体的草图,帮助我们决定需要多少列,那些组件需要扩展:

             

       然后根据上面的草图开始编码,如下所示。注意,我们添加了一些逻辑来使例子更生动一些,比如,Browse…打开一个FileDialog对话框,用来读入一个图像文件,Canvas在渲染监听器中显示图像,Delete删除图像,Enter打印当前信息示例代码放在单一的main方法里,目的是使我们注重于布局代码,而不是程序风格上。

import org.eclipse.swt.*;

import org.eclipse.swt.widgets.*;

import org.eclipse.swt.layout.*;

import org.eclipse.swt.events.*;

import org.eclipse.swt.graphics.*;

public class ComplexGridLayoutExample {

   static Display display;

   static Shell shell;

   static Text dogName;

   static Combo dogBreed;

   static Canvas dogPhoto;

   static Image dogImage;

   static List categories;

   static Text ownerName;

   static Text ownerPhone;

   public static void main(String[] args) {

       display = new Display();

       shell = new Shell(display);

       shell.setText("Dog Show Entry");

       GridLayout gridLayout = new GridLayout();

       gridLayout.numColumns = 3;

       shell.setLayout(gridLayout);

     

       new Label(shell, SWT.NONE).setText("Dog's Name:");

       dogName = new Text(shell, SWT.SINGLE | SWT.BORDER);

       GridData gridData = new GridData(GridData.HORIZONTAL_ALIGN_FILL);

       gridData.horizontalSpan = 2;

       dogName.setLayoutData(gridData);

       new Label(shell, SWT.NONE).setText("Breed:");

       dogBreed = new Combo(shell, SWT.NONE);

       dogBreed.setItems(new String [] {"Collie", "Pitbull", "Poodle", "Scottie"});

       dogBreed.setLayoutData(new GridData(GridData.HORIZONTAL_ALIGN_FILL));

       Label label = new Label(shell, SWT.NONE);

       label.setText("Categories");

       label.setLayoutData(new GridData(GridData.HORIZONTAL_ALIGN_CENTER));

      

       new Label(shell, SWT.NONE).setText("Photo:");

       dogPhoto = new Canvas(shell, SWT.BORDER);

       gridData = new GridData(GridData.FILL_BOTH);

       gridData.widthHint = 80;

       gridData.heightHint = 80;

       gridData.verticalSpan = 3;

       dogPhoto.setLayoutData(gridData);

       dogPhoto.addPaintListener(new PaintListener() {

          public void paintControl(final PaintEvent event) {

              if (dogImage != null) {

                 event.gc.drawImage(dogImage, 0, 0);

              }

          }

       });

       categories = new List(shell, SWT.MULTI | SWT.BORDER | SWT.V_SCROLL);

       categories.setItems(new String [] {

          "Best of Breed", "Prettiest Female", "Handsomest Male",

          "Best Dressed", "Fluffiest Ears", "Most Colors",

          "Best Performer", "Loudest Bark", "Best Behaved",

          "Prettiest Eyes", "Most Hair", "Longest Tail",

          "Cutest Trick"});

       gridData = new GridData(GridData.HORIZONTAL_ALIGN_FILL | GridData.VERTICAL_ALIGN_FILL);

       gridData.verticalSpan = 4;

       int listHeight = categories.getItemHeight() * 12;

       Rectangle trim = categories.computeTrim(0, 0, 0, listHeight);

       gridData.heightHint = trim.height;

       categories.setLayoutData(gridData);

      

       Button browse = new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH);

       browse.setText("Browse...");

       gridData = new GridData(GridData.HORIZONTAL_ALIGN_FILL);

       gridData.horizontalIndent = 5;

       browse.setLayoutData(gridData);

       browse.addSelectionListener(new SelectionAdapter() {

          public void widgetSelected(SelectionEvent event) {

              String fileName = new FileDialog(shell).open();

              if (fileName != null) {

                 dogImage = new Image(display, fileName);

              }

          }

       });

      

       Button delete = new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH);

       delete.setText("Delete");

       gridData = new GridData(GridData.HORIZONTAL_ALIGN_FILL | GridData.VERTICAL_ALIGN_BEGINNING);

       gridData.horizontalIndent = 5;

       delete.setLayoutData(gridData);

       delete.addSelectionListener(new SelectionAdapter() {

          public void widgetSelected(SelectionEvent event) {

              if (dogImage != null) {

                 dogImage.dispose();

                 dogImage = null;

                 dogPhoto.redraw();

              }

          }

       });

      

       Group ownerInfo = new Group(shell, SWT.NONE);

       ownerInfo.setText("Owner Info");

       gridLayout = new GridLayout();

       gridLayout.numColumns = 2;

       ownerInfo.setLayout(gridLayout);

       gridData = new GridData(GridData.HORIZONTAL_ALIGN_FILL);

       gridData.horizontalSpan = 2;

       ownerInfo.setLayoutData(gridData);

      

       new Label(ownerInfo, SWT.NONE).setText("Name:");

       ownerName = new Text(ownerInfo, SWT.SINGLE | SWT.BORDER);

       ownerName.setLayoutData(new GridData(GridData.FILL_HORIZONTAL));

      

       new Label(ownerInfo, SWT.NONE).setText("Phone:");

       ownerPhone = new Text(ownerInfo, SWT.SINGLE | SWT.BORDER);

       ownerPhone.setLayoutData(new GridData(GridData.FILL_HORIZONTAL));

      

       Button enter = new Button(shell, SWT.PUSH);

       enter.setText("Enter");

       gridData = new GridData(GridData.HORIZONTAL_ALIGN_END);

       gridData.horizontalSpan = 3;

       enter.setLayoutData(gridData);

       enter.addSelectionListener(new SelectionAdapter() {

          public void widgetSelected(SelectionEvent event) {

              System.out.println("/nDog Name: " + dogName.getText());

              System.out.println("Dog Breed: " + dogBreed.getText());

              System.out.println("Owner Name: " + ownerName.getText());

              System.out.println("Owner Phone: " + ownerPhone.getText());

              System.out.println("Categories:");

              String cats[] = categories.getSelection();

              for (int i = 0; i < cats.length; i++) {

                 System.out.println("/t" + cats[i]);

              }

          }

       });

      

       shell.pack();

       shell.open();

       while (!shell.isDisposed()) {

          if (!display.readAndDispatch()) display.sleep();

       }

       if (dogImage != null) {

          dogImage.dispose();

       }

   }

}

       以下显示了当Mary Smith输入Fifi后的效果:

           

       如果窗体尺寸变大,布局重新调整为如下所示:

           

       注意以下内容:

l         一共有37行;

l         dogPhoto Canvas可以变宽和变高,因为它在横向和纵向都设置了填充和扩展(本例没有调整Image的大小,可以编程实现);

l         dogBreed Combo可以变宽,因为设置了它横向填充,并且和Canvas在相同的列里;

l         dogName Text可以变宽,因为设置了它横向填充,并且它跨越的一列里含有Canvas

l         ccategories List可以变高,因为设置了它纵向填充,并且它跨越的行里含有Canvas

l         因为categories List变高了,它的垂直滚动条消失了(它没有变宽);

l         ownerInfo Group变宽了,因为设置了它横向填充,且它跨越的一列里含有Canvas

l         ownerInfo Group作为Composite的子类,拥有自己的22列的GridLayout

l         ownerNameownerPhone Texts变宽了,因为Group变宽了,并且在GroupGridLayout里设置了它们横向填充和扩展;

l         browsedelete 按钮轻微交错,由于设置了横向填充,它们宽度保持一致;

l         delete Button在它所在的行上靠上对齐;

l         Categories标签在categories List上居中对齐;

l         enter按钮在它跨越的三列里水平右对齐;

l         dogPhoto Canvas设置了宽度和高度初始值(width and height hints),因为我们想尽可能的设置图像大小为80 x 80 像素;

l         categories List设置了高度初始值,为List字体高度的12倍,因为我们想让列表初始显示12行。

阅读全文
0 0

相关文章推荐

img
取 消
img