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翻译的文章Runtime.exec()

发表于2008/9/28 9:41:00  1760人阅读

分类: 技术文摘

 

When Runtime.exec() won't

Navigate yourself around pitfalls related to the Runtime.exec() method

By Michael C. Daconta, JavaWorld.com, 12/29/00

As part of the Java language, the java.lang package is implicitly imported into every Java program. This package's pitfalls surface often, affecting most programmers. This month, I'll discuss the traps lurking in the Runtime.exec() method.

Pitfall 4: When Runtime.exec() won't

The class java.lang.Runtime features a static method called getRuntime(), which retrieves the current Java Runtime Environment. That is the only way to obtain a reference to the Runtime object. With that reference, you can run external programs by invoking the Runtime class's exec() method. Developers often call this method to launch a browser for displaying a help page in HTML.

There are four overloaded versions of the exec() command:

java.lang.Runtime.getRuntime()方法得到当前JAVA运行时环境,这是获得Runtime对象的唯一方法,通过调用Runtime对象的exec()方法可以执行外部程序,有以下方法形式

·                            public Process exec(String command);

·                            public Process exec(String [] cmdArray);

·                            public Process exec(String command, String [] envp);

·                            public Process exec(String [] cmdArray, String [] envp);

 

For each of these methods, a command -- and possibly a set of arguments -- is passed to an operating-system-specific function call. This subsequently creates an operating-system-specific process (a running program) with a reference to a Process class returned to the Java VM. The Process class is an abstract class, because a specific subclass of Process exists for each operating system.

You can pass three possible input parameters into these methods:

1.             A single string that represents both the program to execute and any arguments to that program

2.             An array of strings that separate the program from its arguments

3.             An array of environment variables

 

Pass in the environment variables in the form name=value. If you use the version of exec() with a single string for both the program and its arguments, note that the string is parsed using white space as the delimiter via the StringTokenizer class.

调用这些方法后,将会返回一个操作系统级的进程给JAVA VM里的Process类。你可以传三种参数给这些方法

1、           带命令行参数的执行程序做为一个参数传给exec方法

2、           将外部执行程序的命令和参数数组传给exec方法

3、           环境变量数组传给exec方法

传环境变量的格式是name=value。如果用一个参数的exec方法,要注意命令和参数以空格分隔

Stumbling into an IllegalThreadStateException

The first pitfall relating to Runtime.exec() is the IllegalThreadStateException. The prevalent first test of an API is to code its most obvious methods. For example, to execute a process that is external to the Java VM, we use the exec() method. To see the value that the external process returns, we use the exitValue() method on the Process class. In our first example, we will attempt to execute the Java compiler (javac.exe):

 

Runtime.exec()会抛出IllegalThreadStateException异常。下面有个例子是要看Runtime.exec()执行后的返回值

Listing 4.1 BadExecJavac.java

                       

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

public class BadExecJavac

{

    public static void main(String args[])

    {

        try

        {            

            Runtime rt = Runtime.getRuntime();

            Process proc = rt.exec("javac");

            int exitVal = proc.exitValue();

            System.out.println("Process exitValue: " + exitVal);

        } catch (Throwable t)

          {

            t.printStackTrace();

          }

    }

}

 

                    

将会抛出如下异常

A run of BadExecJavac produces:

                       

E:/classes/com/javaworld/jpitfalls/article2>java BadExecJavac

java.lang.IllegalThreadStateException: process has not exited

        at java.lang.Win32Process.exitValue(Native Method)

        at BadExecJavac.main(BadExecJavac.java:13)

 

                    

 

If an external process has not yet completed, the exitValue() method will throw an IllegalThreadStateException; that's why this program failed. While the documentation states this fact, why can't this method wait until it can give a valid answer?

为什么会抛出异常呢?因为外部进程还未执行完时,就用exitValue()取返回值的话,就会抛出IllegalThreadStateException异常。为什么这个方法不等到外部命令执行结束返回一个有用的结果呢?

A more thorough look at the methods available in the Process class reveals a waitFor() method that does precisely that. In fact, waitFor() also returns the exit value, which means that you would not use exitValue() and waitFor() in conjunction with each other, but rather would choose one or the other. The only possible time you would use exitValue() instead of waitFor() would be when you don't want your program to block waiting on an external process that may never complete. Instead of using the waitFor() method, I would prefer passing a boolean parameter called waitFor into the exitValue() method to determine whether or not the current thread should wait. A boolean would be more beneficial because exitValue() is a more appropriate name for this method, and it isn't necessary for two methods to perform the same function under different conditions. Such simple condition discrimination is the domain of an input parameter.

Process类有个waitFor()方法也能返回值,这就意味着只要用其中的一个就可以了。什么情况下使用waitForexitValue?当你不想你的程序阻塞在一个可能永远无法完成的外部进程时,就用exitValue,否则就用waitFor。建议使用exitValue,我更喜欢通过传一个布尔值来决定使用waitForexitValue

Therefore, to avoid this trap, either catch the IllegalThreadStateException or wait for the process to complete.

Now, let's fix the problem in Listing 4.1 and wait for the process to complete. In Listing 4.2, the program again attempts to execute javac.exe and then waits for the external process to complete:

下面的代码改进了Listing4.1以等待外部进程结束

Listing 4.2 BadExecJavac2.java

                       

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

public class BadExecJavac2

{

    public static void main(String args[])

    {

        try

        {           

            Runtime rt = Runtime.getRuntime();

            Process proc = rt.exec("javac");

            int exitVal = proc.waitFor();

            System.out.println("Process exitValue: " + exitVal);

        } catch (Throwable t)

          {

            t.printStackTrace();

          }

    }

}

 

                     

 

Unfortunately, a run of BadExecJavac2 produces no output. The program hangs and never completes. Why does the javac process never complete?

不幸的是,程序挂起不能结束了,为什么会这样?

Why Runtime.exec() hangs

The JDK's Javadoc documentation provides the answer to this question:

JDK's Javadoc documentation这样说的:

Because some native platforms only provide limited buffer size for standard input and output streams, failure to promptly write the input stream or read the output stream of the subprocess may cause the subprocess to block, and even deadlock.

因为当前操作系统平台只提供有限大小的缓存给输入输出流(TMD,怎么跟输入输出流拉上关系了)因为不能很快的读写输入输出流,可能会导致子进程阻塞甚至死锁

Is this just a case of programmers not reading the documentation, as implied in the oft-quoted advice: read the fine manual (RTFM)? The answer is partially yes. In this case, reading the Javadoc would get you halfway there; it explains that you need to handle the streams to your external process, but it does not tell you how.

JDK文档中告诉你需要处理外部进程流,但是没告诉你怎么做

Another variable is at play here, as is evident by the large number of programmer questions and misconceptions concerning this API in the newsgroups: though Runtime.exec() and the Process APIs seem extremely simple, that simplicity is deceiving because the simple, or obvious, use of the API is prone to error. The lesson here for the API designer is to reserve simple APIs for simple operations. Operations prone to complexities and platform-specific dependencies should reflect the domain accurately. It is possible for an abstraction to be carried too far. The JConfig library provides an example of a more complete API to handle file and process operations (see Resources below for more information).

Runtime.exec() and the Process APIs看上去很简单,用起来却很容易出错,The JConfig library提供了完整的API例子,来处理文件和进程操作

(see Resources below for more information).

 

Now, let's follow the JDK documentation and handle the output of the javac process. When you run javac without any arguments, it produces a set of usage statements that describe how to run the program and the meaning of all the available program options. Knowing that this is going to the stderr stream, you can easily write a program to exhaust that stream before waiting for the process to exit. Listing 4.3 completes that task. While this approach will work, it is not a good general solution. Thus, Listing 4.3's program is named MediocreExecJavac; it provides only a mediocre solution. A better solution would empty both the standard error stream and the standard output stream. And the best solution would empty these streams simultaneously (I'll demonstrate that later).

下面按照JDK文档的建议来处理javac 进程的输出流。首先你要知道的是在命令行下,当你不带参数运行javac时,它会输出javac的用法。

你可以在等待进程退出之前处理javac的输出流。

Listing4.3展示了这种处理方法,但它不是很好的解决方法,这只是一个普通的解决方案。更好的解决方案是把标准错误流和标准输出流腾空。最好的解决方案是同时腾空这两种流(将会在下面讨论)

Listing 4.3 MediocreExecJavac.java

                       

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

public class MediocreExecJavac

{

    public static void main(String args[])

    {

        try

        {           

            Runtime rt = Runtime.getRuntime();

            Process proc = rt.exec("javac");

            InputStream stderr = proc.getErrorStream();

            InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(stderr);

            BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(isr);

            String line = null;

            System.out.println("<ERROR>");

            while ( (line = br.readLine()) != null)

                System.out.println(line);

            System.out.println("</ERROR>");

            int exitVal = proc.waitFor();

            System.out.println("Process exitValue: " + exitVal);

        } catch (Throwable t)

          {

            t.printStackTrace();

          }

    }

}

 

                    

执行Listing4.3输出的结果是

A run of MediocreExecJavac generates:

                       

E:/classes/com/javaworld/jpitfalls/article2>java MediocreExecJavac

<ERROR>

Usage: javac <options> <source files>

where <options> includes:

  -g                     Generate all debugging info

  -g:none                Generate no debugging info

  -g:{lines,vars,source} Generate only some debugging info

  -O                     Optimize; may hinder debugging or enlarge class files

  -nowarn                Generate no warnings

  -verbose               Output messages about what the compiler is doing

  -deprecation           Output source locations where deprecated APIs are used

  -classpath <path>      Specify where to find user class files

  -sourcepath <path>     Specify where to find input source files

  -bootclasspath <path>  Override location of bootstrap class files

  -extdirs <dirs>        Override location of installed extensions

  -d <directory>         Specify where to place generated class files

  -encoding <encoding>   Specify character encoding used by source files

  -target <release>      Generate class files for specific VM version

</ERROR>

Process exitValue: 2

 

                    

 

So, MediocreExecJavac works and produces an exit value of 2. Normally, an exit value of 0 indicates success; any nonzero value indicates an error. The meaning of these exit values depends on the particular operating system. A Win32 error with a value of 2 is a "file not found" error. That makes sense, since javac expects us to follow the program with the source code file to compile.

Thus, to circumvent the second pitfall -- hanging forever in Runtime.exec() -- if the program you launch produces output or expects input, ensure that you process the input and output streams.

MediocreExecJavac返回值是2,通常,返回0表示成功,非0表示错误。返回值代表的意思与操作系统有关。在win32系统下2代表文件未找到。

综上所述,要避免挂起,你需要处理输入输出流

Assuming a command is an executable program

Under the Windows operating system, many new programmers stumble upon Runtime.exec() when trying to use it for nonexecutable commands like dir and copy. Subsequently, they run into Runtime.exec()'s third pitfall. Listing 4.4 demonstrates exactly that:

windows操作系统下,许多程序员偶尔发现使用Runtime.exec()运行非可执行命令dircopy时,会掉进第3种陷阱,Listing4.4描述了这个问题

Listing 4.4 BadExecWinDir.java

                        

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

public class BadExecWinDir

{

    public static void main(String args[])

    {

        try

        {           

            Runtime rt = Runtime.getRuntime();

            Process proc = rt.exec("dir");

            InputStream stdin = proc.getInputStream();

            InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(stdin);

            BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(isr);

            String line = null;

            System.out.println("<OUTPUT>");

            while ( (line = br.readLine()) != null)

                System.out.println(line);

            System.out.println("</OUTPUT>");

            int exitVal = proc.waitFor();           

            System.out.println("Process exitValue: " + exitVal);

        } catch (Throwable t)

          {

            t.printStackTrace();

          }

    }

}

 

                    

执行Listing4.4出现下面的结果

A run of BadExecWinDir produces:

                       

E:/classes/com/javaworld/jpitfalls/article2>java BadExecWinDir

java.io.IOException: CreateProcess: dir error=2

        at java.lang.Win32Process.create(Native Method)

        at java.lang.Win32Process.<init>(Unknown Source)

        at java.lang.Runtime.execInternal(Native Method)

        at java.lang.Runtime.exec(Unknown Source)

        at java.lang.Runtime.exec(Unknown Source)

        at java.lang.Runtime.exec(Unknown Source)

        at java.lang.Runtime.exec(Unknown Source)

        at BadExecWinDir.main(BadExecWinDir.java:12)

 

                    

 

As stated earlier, the error value of 2 means "file not found," which, in this case, means that the executable named dir.exe could not be found. That's because the directory command is part of the Windows command interpreter and not a separate executable. To run the Windows command interpreter, execute either command.com or cmd.exe, depending on the Windows operating system you use. Listing 4.5 runs a copy of the Windows command interpreter and then executes the user-supplied command (e.g., dir).

之前已提到过2代表文件未找到,在这里则是说dir.exe命令未找到。因为dir命令不是可独立执行程序。为了运行dir,必须先运行windows命令解释程序 command.com或者cmd.exe,具体运行哪个与操作系统有关。Listing 4.5是运行windows命令解释程序的例子

Listing 4.5 GoodWindowsExec.java

                       

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

class StreamGobbler extends Thread

{

    InputStream is;

    String type;

   

    StreamGobbler(InputStream is, String type)

    {

        this.is = is;

        this.type = type;

    }

   

    public void run()

    {

        try

        {

            InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(is);

            BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(isr);

            String line=null;

            while ( (line = br.readLine()) != null)

                System.out.println(type + ">" + line);   

            } catch (IOException ioe)

              {

                ioe.printStackTrace(); 

              }

    }

}

public class GoodWindowsExec

{

    public static void main(String args[])

    {

        if (args.length < 1)

        {

            System.out.println("USAGE: java GoodWindowsExec <cmd>");

            System.exit(1);

        }

       

        try

        {           

            String osName = System.getProperty("os.name" );

            String[] cmd = new String[3];

            if( osName.equals( "Windows NT" ) )

            {

                cmd[0] = "cmd.exe" ;

                cmd[1] = "/C" ;

                cmd[2] = args[0];

            }

            else if( osName.equals( "Windows 95" ) )

            {

                cmd[0] = "command.com" ;

                cmd[1] = "/C" ;

                cmd[2] = args[0];

            }

           

            Runtime rt = Runtime.getRuntime();

            System.out.println("Execing " + cmd[0] + " " + cmd[1]

                               + " " + cmd[2]);

            Process proc = rt.exec(cmd);

            // any error message?

            StreamGobbler errorGobbler = new

                StreamGobbler(proc.getErrorStream(), "ERROR");           

           

            // any output?

            StreamGobbler outputGobbler = new

                StreamGobbler(proc.getInputStream(), "OUTPUT");

               

            // kick them off

            errorGobbler.start();

            outputGobbler.start();

                                   

            // any error???

            int exitVal = proc.waitFor();

            System.out.println("ExitValue: " + exitVal);       

        } catch (Throwable t)

          {

            t.printStackTrace();

          }

    }

}

 

                    

 

Running GoodWindowsExec with the dir command generates:

                       

E:/classes/com/javaworld/jpitfalls/article2>java GoodWindowsExec "dir *.java"

Execing cmd.exe /C dir *.java

运行Listing4.5输出以下结果

OUTPUT> Volume in drive E has no label.

OUTPUT> Volume Serial Number is 5C5F-0CC9

OUTPUT>

OUTPUT> Directory of E:/classes/com/javaworld/jpitfalls/article2

OUTPUT>

OUTPUT>10/23/00  09:01p                   805 BadExecBrowser.java

OUTPUT>10/22/00  09:35a                   770 BadExecBrowser1.java

OUTPUT>10/24/00  08:45p                   488 BadExecJavac.java

OUTPUT>10/24/00  08:46p                   519 BadExecJavac2.java

OUTPUT>10/24/00  09:13p                   930 BadExecWinDir.java

OUTPUT>10/22/00  09:21a                 2,282 BadURLPost.java

OUTPUT>10/22/00  09:20a                 2,273 BadURLPost1.java

... (some output omitted for brevity)

OUTPUT>10/12/00  09:29p                   151 SuperFrame.java

OUTPUT>10/24/00  09:23p                 1,814 TestExec.java

OUTPUT>10/09/00  05:47p                23,543 TestStringReplace.java

OUTPUT>10/12/00  08:55p                   228 TopLevel.java

OUTPUT>              22 File(s)         46,661 bytes

OUTPUT>                         19,678,420,992 bytes free

ExitValue: 0

 

                    

 

Running GoodWindowsExec with any associated document type will launch the application associated with that document type. For example, to launch Microsoft Word to display a Word document (i.e., one with a .doc extension), type:

                       

>java GoodWindowsExec "yourdoc.doc"

 

                    

 

Notice that GoodWindowsExec uses the os.name system property to determine which Windows operating system you are running -- and thus determine the appropriate command interpreter. After executing the command interpreter, handle the standard error and standard input streams with the StreamGobbler class. StreamGobbler empties any stream passed into it in a separate thread. The class uses a simple String type to denote the stream it empties when it prints the line just read to the console.

GoodWindowsExec程序根据操作系统名决定执行哪个命令解释程序。当执行了命令解释程序后,用StreamGobbler类在一个独立的线程中处理了传入的流。使用type决定腾空哪种流

Thus, to avoid the third pitfall related to Runtime.exec(), do not assume that a command is an executable program; know whether you are executing a standalone executable or an interpreted command. At the end of this section, I will demonstrate a simple command-line tool that will help you with that analysis.

如何判断执行的外部命令是可执行程序还是命令解释程序?下面会提到一个工具来判断

It is important to note that the method used to obtain a process's output stream is called getInputStream(). The thing to remember is that the API sees things from the perspective of the Java program and not the external process. Therefore, the external program's output is the Java program's input. And that logic carries over to the external program's input stream, which is an output stream to the Java program.

重点需要注意的是命名问题,得到process的输出流的方法是调用getInputStream()要记住的是API的观点是站在JAVA程序的角度看的,而不是外部程序的角度。 因此外部程序的输出流是java程序的输入流。

Runtime.exec() is not a command line

One final pitfall to cover with Runtime.exec() is mistakenly assuming that exec() accepts any String that your command line (or shell) accepts. Runtime.exec() is much more limited and not cross-platform. This pitfall is caused by users attempting to use the exec() method to accept a single String as a command line would. The confusion may be due to the fact that command is the parameter name for the exec() method. Thus, the programmer incorrectly associates the parameter command with anything that he or she can type on a command line, instead of associating it with a single program and its arguments. In listing 4.6 below, a user tries to execute a command and redirect its output in one call to exec():

最后一个陷阱是你会错误的认为Runtime.exec()能执行任何你在命令行中可以执行的命令。Runtime.exec()有很多限制并且不跨平台。这个陷阱的原因是:用户试图用exec()方法接受一个可以在命令行下执行的单独的字符串。使人困惑的本质是commandexec()方法的参数名字。因此程序员错误的认为在命令行可以运行的,也可以通过参数传给exec方法运行。

Listing 4.6 BadWinRedirect.java

                       

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

// StreamGobbler omitted for brevity

public class BadWinRedirect

{

    public static void main(String args[])

    {

        try

        {           

            Runtime rt = Runtime.getRuntime();

            Process proc = rt.exec("java jecho 'Hello World' > test.txt");

            // any error message?

            StreamGobbler errorGobbler = new

                StreamGobbler(proc.getErrorStream(), "ERROR");           

           

            // any output?

            StreamGobbler outputGobbler = new

                StreamGobbler(proc.getInputStream(), "OUTPUT");

               

            // kick them off

            errorGobbler.start();

            outputGobbler.start();

                                   

            // any error???

            int exitVal = proc.waitFor();

            System.out.println("ExitValue: " + exitVal);       

        } catch (Throwable t)

          {

            t.printStackTrace();

          }

    }

}

 

                    

 

Running BadWinRedirect produces:

                       

E:/classes/com/javaworld/jpitfalls/article2>java BadWinRedirect

OUTPUT>'Hello World' > test.txt

ExitValue: 0

 

                    

 

The program BadWinRedirect attempted to redirect the output of an echo program's simple Java version into the file test.txt. However, we find that the file test.txt does not exist. The jecho program simply takes its command-line arguments and writes them to the standard output stream. (You will find the source for jecho in the source code available for download in Resources.) In Listing 4.6, the user assumed that you could redirect standard output into a file just as you could on a DOS command line. Nevertheless, you do not redirect the output through this approach. The incorrect assumption here is that the exec() method acts like a shell interpreter; it does not. Instead, exec() executes a single executable (a program or script). If you want to process the stream to either redirect it or pipe it into another program, you must do so programmatically, using the java.io package. Listing 4.7 properly redirects the standard output stream of the jecho process into a file.

这个程序的本意思是想将结果重定向到test.txt文件中。然而test.txt文件并不存在。Jecho程序只是把命令行参数写入了标准流。用户认为在DOS命令行下能重定向到test.txt文件中,也就主观的认为通过调用exec方法执行命令也可以达到这样的效果。如果你想把流重定向到另外一个程序中,你必须使用java.io包来处理。

 

Listing 4.7 GoodWinRedirect.java

                       

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

class StreamGobbler extends Thread

{

    InputStream is;

    String type;

    OutputStream os;

   

    StreamGobbler(InputStream is, String type)

    {

        this(is, type, null);

    }

    StreamGobbler(InputStream is, String type, OutputStream redirect)

    {

        this.is = is;

        this.type = type;

        this.os = redirect;

    }

   

    public void run()

    {

        try

        {

            PrintWriter pw = null;

            if (os != null)

                pw = new PrintWriter(os);

               

            InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(is);

            BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(isr);

            String line=null;

            while ( (line = br.readLine()) != null)

            {

                if (pw != null)

                    pw.println(line);

                System.out.println(type + ">" + line);   

            }

            if (pw != null)

                pw.flush();

        } catch (IOException ioe)

            {

            ioe.printStackTrace(); 

            }

    }

}

public class GoodWinRedirect

{

    public static void main(String args[])

    {

        if (args.length < 1)

        {

            System.out.println("USAGE java GoodWinRedirect <outputfile>");

            System.exit(1);

        }

       

        try

        {           

            FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(args[0]);

            Runtime rt = Runtime.getRuntime();

            Process proc = rt.exec("java jecho 'Hello World'");

            // any error message?

            StreamGobbler errorGobbler = new

                StreamGobbler(proc.getErrorStream(), "ERROR");           

           

            // any output?

            StreamGobbler outputGobbler = new

                StreamGobbler(proc.getInputStream(), "OUTPUT", fos);

               

            // kick them off

            errorGobbler.start();

            outputGobbler.start();

                                   

            // any error???

            int exitVal = proc.waitFor();

            System.out.println("ExitValue: " + exitVal);

            fos.flush();

            fos.close();       

        } catch (Throwable t)

          {

            t.printStackTrace();

          }

    }

}

 

                    

 

Running GoodWinRedirect produces:

                       

E:/classes/com/javaworld/jpitfalls/article2>java GoodWinRedirect test.txt

OUTPUT>'Hello World'

ExitValue: 0

 

                    

 

After running GoodWinRedirect, test.txt does exist. The solution to the pitfall was to simply control the redirection by handling the external process's standard output stream separately from the Runtime.exec() method. We create a separate OutputStream, read in the filename to which we redirect the output, open the file, and write the output that we receive from the spawned process's standard output to the file. Listing 4.7 completes that task by adding a new constructor to our StreamGobbler class. The new constructor takes three arguments: the input stream to gobble, the type String that labels the stream we are gobbling, and the output stream to which we redirect the input. This new version of StreamGobbler does not break any of the code in which it was previously used, as we have not changed the existing public API -- we only extended it.

Since the argument to Runtime.exec() is dependent on the operating system, the proper commands to use will vary from one OS to another. So, before finalizing arguments to Runtime.exec() and writing the code, quickly test the arguments. Listing 4.8 is a simple command-line utility that allows you to do just that.

Here's a useful exercise: try to modify TestExec to redirect the standard input or standard output to a file. When executing the javac compiler on Windows 95 or Windows 98, that would solve the problem of error messages scrolling off the top of the limited command-line buffer.

运行完GoodWinRedirecttest.txt就会有了。通过独立于Runtime.exec()方法来处理外部进程输出流来完成了重定向功能。我们建立了一个OutputStream,打开 文件,接收外部产生的输出流,然后写入到文件。Listing 4.7程序添加了一个带三个参数的新的构造器,三个参数是输入流,标识输入流的类型参数、我们要重定向输出流。

Listing 4.8 TestExec.java

                       

import java.util.*;

import java.io.*;

// class StreamGobbler omitted for brevity

public class TestExec

{

    public static void main(String args[])

    {

        if (args.length < 1)

        {

            System.out.println("USAGE: java TestExec /"cmd/"");

            System.exit(1);

        }

       

        try

        {

            String cmd = args[0];

            Runtime rt = Runtime.getRuntime();

            Process proc = rt.exec(cmd);

           

            // any error message?

            StreamGobbler errorGobbler = new

                StreamGobbler(proc.getErrorStream(), "ERR");           

           

            // any output?

            StreamGobbler outputGobbler = new

                StreamGobbler(proc.getInputStream(), "OUT");

               

            // kick them off

            errorGobbler.start();

            outputGobbler.start();

                                   

            // any error???

            int exitVal = proc.waitFor();

            System.out.println("ExitValue: " + exitVal);

        } catch (Throwable t)

          {

            t.printStackTrace();

          }

    }

}

 

                    

 

Running TestExec to launch the Netscape browser and load the Java help documentation produces:

                       

E:/classes/com/javaworld/jpitfalls/article2>java TestExec "e:/java/docs/index.html"

java.io.IOException: CreateProcess: e:/java/docs/index.html error=193

        at java.lang.Win32Process.create(Native Method)

        at java.lang.Win32Process.<init>(Unknown Source)

        at java.lang.Runtime.execInternal(Native Method)

        at java.lang.Runtime.exec(Unknown Source)

        at java.lang.Runtime.exec(Unknown Source)

        at java.lang.Runtime.exec(Unknown Source)

        at java.lang.Runtime.exec(Unknown Source)

        at TestExec.main(TestExec.java:45)

 

                    

 

Our first test failed with an error of 193. The Win32 error for value 193 is "not a valid Win32 application." This error tells us that no path to an associated application (e.g., Netscape) exists, and that the process cannot run an HTML file without an associated application.

Therefore, we try the test again, this time giving it a full path to Netscape. (Alternately, we could add Netscape to our PATH environment variable.) A second run of TestExec produces:

                       

E:/classes/com/javaworld/jpitfalls/article2>java TestExec

"e:/program files/netscape/program/netscape.exe e:/java/docs/index.html"

ExitValue: 0

 

                    

 

This worked! The Netscape browser launches, and it then loads the Java help documentation.

One additional improvement to TestExec would include a command-line switch to accept input from standard input. You would then use the Process.getOutputStream() method to pass the input to the spawned external program.

To sum up, follow these rules of thumb to avoid the pitfalls in Runtime.exec():

总结:

1、           外部程序未退出前,你无法得到外部程序返回的退出状态值

2、           你必须处理外部程序的输入、输出和错误流

3、           必须使用Runtime.exec()执行程序

4、           不能使用Runtime.exec()执行一个像一个命令行的命令(You cannot use Runtime.exec() like a command line)

1.             You cannot obtain an exit status from an external process until it has exited

2.             You must immediately handle the input, output, and error streams from your spawned external process

3.             You must use Runtime.exec() to execute programs

4.             You cannot use Runtime.exec() like a command line

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